This article will specifically explore the perceived importance of the following nonverbal factors in the negotiation process: proxemics (location and negotiation site), physical arrangement (seating and furniture arrangement), and kinesics
(eye contact, facial expressions and gestures).
As these works show, it is time that the long-neglected domain of kinesics
was included in our discourse on teaching and learning languages.
Although the kinesics
and Reid methods are widely recognized as effective, no single approach to interrogation holds the entire solution.
Although this list of behavioral manifestations provided language teachers with a point of departure for detecting foreign-language anxiety, preliminary inroads were made with a compilation of nonverbal kinesic
behaviors indicative of foreign-language anxiety, which gave teachers actual physical manifestations to look for including more stoical facial expressions and limited eye contact; rigid, closed posture; and use of more self-adaptive gesture than illustrative, speech-related hand movements (Gregersen, 2005).
Contributors include Anne Cranny-Francis ("Moving The Matrix: Kinesic
Excess and Postindustrial Being"), Pamela Church Gibson ("Fashion, Fetish and Spectacle: The Matrix Dresses Up--and Down"), Catherine Constable ("Baudrillardian Revolutions: Repetition and Radical Intervention in the Matrix Trilogy"), and Paul Sheehan ("Immanence, Autonomy and Integral Anomalies").
The most traditionally studied code of nonverbal communication is kinesics
, or the visual aspects of behavior.
Thus, Elam has emphasized the importance of kinesics
or body-motion communication (69-78); proxemics or the use of space in performance (62-67); and paralinguistics or the vocal qualities, pitch, tempo, loudness of the actors' speech delivery (78-83) as meaning-constitutive systems in the theatrical text.
See also Ray Birdwhistell, Kinesics
and Context: Essays on Body Motion Communication (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970), pp.
Social workers must be even more sensitive to kinesics
, facial expression, eye contact, silences, rate of speech, and other behavior that could be determined by the client's culture, speech avoidance behaviors, or secondary characteristics of stuttering.
The role of context in culture and nonverbal communication is also addressed in Ray Birdwhistell's Kinesics
and Context (1970), and media ecology itself has been characterized as eschewing the popular research method of content analysis in favor of context analysis.
, the correct term, is a complex science that covers details as small as eye movement.
To establish rapport with this witness, Detective Hamilton knows that he needs to match her nonverbal behavior, or kinesics
, by sitting down and leaning forward.