kernicterus


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Related to kernicterus: hyperbilirubinemia

kernicterus

 [ker-nik´ter-us]
a condition in the newborn marked by severe neural symptoms, associated with high levels of bilirubin in the blood; it is commonly a sequela of icterus gravis neonatorum.

ker·nic·ter·us

(ker-nik'tĕr-ŭs),
Jaundice associated with high levels of unconjugated bilirubin, or in small premature infants with more modest degrees of bilirubinemia; yellow staining and degenerative lesions are found chiefly in basal ganglia including in the lenticular nucleus, subthalamus, Ammon horn, and other areas; may occur with hemolytic disorder such as Rh or ABO erythroblastosis or G6PD deficiency as well as with neonatal sepsis or Crigler-Najjar syndrome; characterized early clinically by opisthotonos, high-pitched cry, lethargy, and poor sucking, as well as abnormal or absent Moro reflex, and loss of upward gaze; later consequences include deafness, cerebral palsy, other sensorineural deficits, and mental retardation.
[Ger. Kern, kernel (nucleus), + Ikterus, jaundice]

kernicterus

/ker·nic·ter·us/ (ker-nik´ter-us) [Ger.] a condition with severe neural symptoms, associated with high levels of bilirubin in the blood.

kernicterus

[kərnik′tərəs]
Etymology: Ger, kern, kernel; Gk, ikteros, jaundice
an abnormal toxic accumulation of bilirubin in central nervous system tissues caused by hyperbilirubinemia. See also hyperbilirubinemia of the newborn.

kernicterus

Bilirubin encephalopathy Neonatology The staining of parts of the infant brain, especially the basal ganglia and hippocampus by BR that has penetrated the blood-brain barrier which, in older children, is more impervious to bilirubin; kernicterus is classically linked to Rh HDN, when the immune system of a mother who does not have the RhD–less commonly C, c, E, e, or other antigen on her RBCs, comes in contact with the infant's RBCs and forms antibodies to them; this causes a brisk hemolysis and ↑ BR; serum levels of ≥ 20 mg/dL of BR pose
a high risk for kernicterus, and represent a medical emergency; severe kernicterus is often fatal, and characterized by lethargy, poor feeding, hypertonicity, seizures and apnea; survivors have sequelae in the form of dental dysplasia, cerebral palsy, hearing loss Clinical, full term infants Severe jaundice, lethargy, poor feeding, choreoathetoid cerebral palsy, mental retardation, sensorineural hearing loss, gaze paresis. See Hemolytic disease of the newborn, Jaundice.

ker·nic·ter·us

(kĕr-nik'tĕr-ŭs)
Yellow staining and degenerative lesions in basal ganglia associated with high levels of unconjugated bilirubin in infants; may occur with hemolytic disorder such as Rh or ABO erythroblastosis or G6PD deficiency as well as with neonatal sepsis or Crigler-Najjar syndrome; characterized by opisthotonos, high-pitched cry, lethargy, and poor suckling, as well as abnormal or absent Moro reflex, and loss of upward gaze; later consequences include deafness, cerebral palsy, other sensorineural deficits, and mental retardation.
Synonym(s): bilirubin encephalopathy, nuclear jaundice.
[Ger. Kern, kernel (nucleus), + ikterus, jaundice]

kernicterus

Jaundice of the brain resulting from RHESUS FACTOR disease in babies in which excessive red cell breakdown results in the release of large quantities of BILIRUBIN. Death is common before, or within a week or two after, birth. Surviving infants feed poorly, suffer varying degrees of paralysis, epilepsy, spasticity of the muscles, mental retardation, deafness and blindness. Kernicterus is preventable by prenatal diagnosis and treatment.

Kernicterus

A potentially lethal disease of newborns caused by excessive accumulation of the bile pigment bilirubin.

ker·nic·ter·us

(kĕr-nik'tĕr-ŭs)
Yellow staining and degenerative lesions in basal ganglia associated with high levels of unconjugated bilirubin in infants; characterized by opisthotonos, high-pitched cry, lethargy and poor sucking, and loss of upward gaze; later consequences include deafness, cerebral palsy, other sensorineural deficits, and mental retardation.
Synonym(s): bilirubin encephalopathy, nuclear jaundice.
[Ger. Kern, kernel (nucleus), + ikterus, jaundice]

kernicterus

(kurnik´tərəs),
n a form of brain damage seen in newborns that is caused by an excessive level of red blood cells (polycythemia). As the body breaks down the red blood cells, bilirubin, a byproduct of cell destruction, becomes elevated and results in excessive jaundice. Typical symptoms include lethargy, high-pitched crying, and decreased muscle tone with intermittent periods of increased muscle tone. As the condition progresses, the newborn may exhibit a fever and may arch the head backward in a condition known as opisthotonus, or retrocollis.

kernicterus

bilirubin toxicity; may occur with severe hyperbilirubinemia. Rarely observed in dogs and cats.
References in periodicals archive ?
A modified peroxidase method that uses minimally diluted samples mitigates this problem (14) but, as with the fluorescent probe, it has not been evaluated in jaundiced newborns considered to be at risk for kernicterus.
An accompanying editorial states that treating hyperbilirubinemia may prevent most cases of kernicterus, but that total serum bilirubin alone is a poor indicator of kernicterus risk, and that many infants must be treated to prevent one case (Pediatrics 114 [1]:263-64, 2004).
Kappas said in an interview that the drug could have a significant impact on infant health in developing countries, where kernicterus is still prevalent and perinatal care is rare.
There are anecdotal reports of 22 full-term infants born in the early 1990s who developed kernicterus after discharge from the hospital within 48 hours of birth.
Its use is contraindicated in infants less than 30 days old because it may cause kernicterus (Olver, 1988).
In the 1970s, severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus were major clinical problems.
This might improve prevention of kernicterus, a rare and acute form of jaundice that can permanently damage the infant's brain.
old, she was diagnosed with jaundice, hyperbilirubinemia (an excess of bilirubin, a bile pigment, in the bloodstream), and kernicterus (the presence of a yellow pigment and lesions in the gray matter of the brain).
The majority of these infants were from the newborn intensive care unit and thus were at higher risk for central nervous system disease (eg, kernicterus, cytomegalovirus) and associated hearing loss.
Sheridan, President of Parents of Infants and Children with Kernicterus (PICK) to testify at an Advisory Committee meeting on the current epidemiology and therapeutic interventions relevant to hyperbilirubinemia in the term and near-term newborn on Wednesday, June 11, 2003.
Many reports have emphasized on the risk of kernicterus in G6PD deficient neonates and thus more aggressive treatment is indicated.
2 Most jaundice is benign, but because of potential toxicity of bilirubin to developing brain, newborn infants must be monitored to identify those who might develop severe hyperbilirubinaemia and in rare cases acute bilirubin encephalopathy or kernicterus.