Bacillus licheniformis is previously known for its aptitude to increase the yield of significant industrial enzymes that include proteases, mannases, keratinases
, amylases and [beta]-lactamases among many other.
: hydrolysis of keratinous substrates by three enzymes of Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
However, these proteins can be attacked by microbial keratinases
. A total of 54 bacterial strains isolated from poultry waste (feathers) samples were screened for extracellular enzyme production such as amylase, gelatinase, caseinase and keratinase
have been reported (Gupta and Ramnani, 2006) with molecular masses ranging from 15 to 240 kDa.
* peptidases (aminopeptidases, arylamidases, proteinases, elastases, collagenases, keratinases
Dermatophytic fungi release proteolytic enzymes and keratinases
into the skin.
Biodegradation of feather waste by extracellular keratinases
and gelatinases from bacillus spp.
Establishment of infection by fungi depends on the host-cell interaction with complex interplay of secretion of virulence factors mainly proteinases including elastinases, keratinases
, gelatinases, lipases and phospholipases.
The effect of protinases (Keratinases
) in the pathogenesis of dermatophytes using SEM.
* The use of specific proteolytic enzymes (proteases), in particular under alkaline conditions, that have been shown to break-down the prion protein and reduce infectivity (for example, enzymes such as 'Prionzyme' and the class known as keratinases
, under specific conditions).
These fungi produce keratinases
and collageneases that provide nutrients to the fungi by digesting host tissues.
The basic pathophysiology of tinea infection is inoculation of keratinized skin by dermatophytic fungi followed by release of keratinases
and proteolytic enzymes.