In Finland, numbers of keds averaged 10,616, 3,549, and 1,730 on bulls, cows and calves, respectively, with full coats of hair (n = 23) (Paakkonen et al.
Newly emerging young adult keds attack humans as well as ruminants, especially in Finland.
Keds also were reported as being common on wapiti in Cameron County, Pennsylvania.
More recently, keds were collected opportunistically from several moose and whitetailed deer at hunter check stations by one of us (Gonynor-McGuire) in 2007 and 2008.
Keds are observed annually on harvested moose and white-tailed deer in New Hampshire, with keds more common in recent years, but prevalence and numbers have not been monitored (K.
Surveys of moose and white-tailed deer for deer keds in various jurisdictions in the northeastern United States would be worthwhile, particularly if potential public health problems associated with Bartonella species and deer keds become a reality.
2011) examined fresh carcasses of moose in Sweden and Norway and found keds aggregated in neck, axillae, groin, and perineal regions.
Skin tests were performed with whole-body extract of deer keds to confirm the allergic sensitization.
After deer keds were present for about 20 years in eastern Finland, one third of regularly exposed forest workers became sensitized to the bites (Hackman et al.
Nevertheless, it is reported that deer keds may transfer directly from another white-tailed deer to newborn fawns (Samuel and Trainer 1972).