(20, 21) Several groups independently and almost simultaneously identified these two types of NTRs, and named the molecules importin [alpha] or karyopherin
[alpha] for PTAC58 and importin [beta] or karyopherin
[beta] for PTAC97.
alpha 2 (KPNA2) is associated with the natural resistance to Schistosoma japanicum infection in Microtus fortis.
Cloning and characterization of human karyopherin
KPNA2 encodes for karyopherin
alpha-2 and is involved in the nuclear import of proteins.
miR-26a-5p was found to be suppressed by IL-1[beta]-mediated NF-[kappa]B activation, thereby allowing induction of its direct target iNOS in cartilage ; in addition, miR-26a, alongside with miR-26b, was found to modulate NF-[kappa]B p65 translocation via repression of karyopherin
subunit alpha 3 (KPNA3) .
Pre-miRNA hairpins are exported from the nucleus in a process involving the nucleocytoplasmic shuttle Exportin 5 a member of the karyopherin
family, which recognizes a two-nucleotide overhang left by the RNase III enzyme Drosha at the 3' end of the pre-miRNA.
It probably interacts with karyopherin
alpha/KPNA1 and KPNA2 thereby increasing their affinity for basic-type nuclear localization signal harboring proteins such as viral matrix protein, thus facilitating the translocation of the viral proteins into the nucleus.
This exportin has sequence similarity with karyopherin
[beta]1 and interacts with nucleoporin Nup214 and exports NF-[kappa]B to the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting its accumulation in the nucleus.
2) Proline-tyrosine-NLS (PY-NLS), characterized by a pro-line-tyrosine AA domain in the N-terminal, which allows the protein to bind to importin [beta]2 (also known as transportin or karyopherin
[beta]2), and then relocates the cargo protein into the nucleus (15).
Several proteins were differentially expressed, which included karyopherin
alpha 4 (KPNA4) overexpressed only in paralytic rabies, calcium calmodulin dependent kinase 2 alpha (CAMK2A) which was upregulated in paralytic rabies, and glutamate ammonia ligase (GLUL) which was overexpressed both in paralytic and encephalitic rabies.
Mass spectrometry of partially purified Gcr1 detected copurification of both Kap123 (a karyopherin
that associates with nuclear pores and is involved in protein import/export) and the replication factor Mcm2; we have also successfully immuno-precipitated complexes that contain both Gcr1 and Kap123.
cerevisiae) IMPORTINa3 96010_at karyopherin
(importin) alpha 3 RAE1 160466_at RNA export 1 homolog (S.