kala-azar


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Related to kala-azar: leishmaniasis, Leishmania, sleeping sickness, Black fever, Fnac

leishmaniasis

 [lēsh″mah-ni´ah-sis]
any disease due to infection with Leishmania.
American leishmaniasis forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis found in the Americas.
cutaneous leishmaniasis an endemic disease transmitted by the sandfly and characterized by the development of cutaneous papules that evolve into nodules, break down to form ulcers, and heal with scarring. It has been divided into Old World and New World forms, and the Old World form is subdivided into urban and rural types. The Old World form is caused by organisms of the Leishmania tropica complex; the New World form is caused by organisms of the L. mexicana and L. viannia complexes. It is endemic in the tropics and subtropics, and has been called by various names such as Aleppo boil, Delhi sore, Baghdad sore, and Oriental sore. Treatment consists of injections of pentavalent antimonial compounds. Antibiotics are used to combat secondary infection. Simple lesions may be cleaned, curetted, and left to heal.
cutaneous leishmaniasis, diffuse a rare chronic form of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania aethiopica in Ethiopia and Kenya, L. pifanoi in Venezuela, and species of the L. viannia and L. mexicana subclass in South and Central America, respectively, in which the lesions resemble those of nodular leprosy or of keloid. Pentavalent antimonial compounds are useful in some forms, while others are antimony-resistant. The prognosis for a complete cure is not good; relapses are common.
mucocutaneous leishmaniasis a disease endemic in South and Central America caused by Leishmania viannia, marked by ulceration of the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and pharynx; widespread destruction of soft tissues in nasal and oral regions may occur. Called also espundia. Treatment consists of injections of pentavalent antimonial compounds.
leishmaniasis reci´divans a prolonged, relapsing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling tuberculosis of the skin; it may last for many years.
visceral leishmaniasis a chronic, highly fatal if untreated, infectious disease endemic in the tropics and subtropics, caused by the protozoon Leishmania donovani. Sandflies of the genus Phlebotomus are the vectors. Called also kala-azar.
Symptoms. Symptoms are usually vague, resembling those of incipient pulmonary tuberculosis; the disease is often confused with malaria. There may be fever, chills, malaise, cough, anorexia, anemia, and wasting. The Leishmania organisms multiply in the cells of the reticuloendothelial system, eventually causing hyperplasia of the cells, especially those of the liver and spleen. Diagnosis is confirmed by demonstration of the parasite.
Treatment. Two groups of compounds are recommended: pentavalent organic antimonials, such as sodium antimony gluconate, and aromatic diamidines, such as pentamidine, if the antimonials are ineffective. Rest is prescribed for patients debilitated by anemia. A decrease in white cell count (leukopenia) often accompanies the disease, and therefore the patient's resistance to secondary infections is lowered. In some cases transfusion may be necessary to bring blood values back to normal. The patient is given a well balanced diet and liberal amounts of fluids. Special mouth care and attention to the skin are necessary to avoid complications.

kala-azar

/ka·la-azar/ (kah″lah-ah-zahr´) [Hindi] visceral leishmaniasis.

kala-azar

(kä′lə-ə-zär′)
n.
A type of leishmaniasis occurring chiefly in India, caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani and characterized by fever, enlargement of the spleen and liver, progressive anemia and leukopenia, and weight loss.

kala-azar

[kä′lə äzär′]
Etymology: Hindi, kala, black; Assamese, azar, fever
a chronic and potentially fatal disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania donovani, transmitted to humans, particularly to children, by the bite of the sand fly. Kala-azar occurs primarily in Asia, parts of Africa, several South and Central American countries, and the Mediterranean region. The liver and spleen are the main sites of infection; signs and symptoms include anemia, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, irregular fever, suppression of bone marrow, and emaciation. Patients with kala-azar are also susceptible to secondary bacterial infections. Untreated, the disease has an extremely high mortality. Treatment includes sodium antimony gluconate, blood transfusions (for anemia), bed rest, and adequate nutrition. Also called Assam fever, black fever, dumdum fever, ponos, visceral leishmaniasis. See also leishmaniasis.
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Kala-azar

kala-azar

see leishmaniasis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Meanwhile the medical charity, Medecins Sans Fronteres (MSF) said it continued to provide medical assistance to clinics treating Kala-azar patients in Lankien where most of the deaths occurred.
Kala-azar was diagnosed in 2011, and she received 30 injections of SSG.
Furthermore, immigration twice a year, with routes as long as hundreds of kilometres through different kala-azar endemic regions and through a variety of land coverage, exposes them and their dogs to the regions of sandfly breeding and activity.
The significance of this finding is that kala-azar exists beyond the three countries (Bangladesh, India and Nepal) in the Indian subcontinent and therefore, in the effort of eliminating the disease from these three countries, it should not be forgotten that other areas in the region are also affected5.
Kala-azar in childhood: a survey of clinical and laboratory findings and prognosis in 44 childhood cases.
To give an example, I had one young woman who came in with TB and kala-azar.
Partners stressed that a full response to Kala-azar requires additional health and nutrition to support treatment facitilities," it adds, citing Lankien, Malakal, Fangak and Chuil areas as badly-hit by the disease.
Regional strategic framework for elimination of kala-azar from the South-East Asia Region (2005-2015) [cited 2013 Apr 10].
VL patients, under investigation were from the State of Bihar, India, where kala-azar is endemic.
Studies of the anemia in kala-azar in 68 childhood cases.
Concomitant kala-azar, malaria and progressive unstable indeterminate leprosy in an 8-year-old-child.
Known as Kala-Azar in India, VL is transmitted by the bite of an infected sand fly.