Based on a comparison of volatile emissions from manuka oil, phoebe oil, and chipped redbay wood, Hanula & Sullivan (2008) hypothesized that two sesquiterpenes, a-copaene and calamenene, were host-based attractants (kairomones
) for X.
Experiment 2: response to kairomones
after learning.--Marbled salamander (Ambystoma opacum) larvae were collected (n = 20) from an ephemeral pool in Jefferson County, Indiana.
However, a prey animal's response to chemical stimuli, including alarm cues and kairomones
, is dependent on the conditions the animal was exposed to throughout its life.
The most probable primitive repellent is the use of smoke to mask kairomones
(odors from humans who are attractive to host-seeking mosquitoes) and provide relief from insect biting pressure.
Response of the Ichneumonid parasite Nemeritis canescens to kairomones
from the flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella.
2001.--Pheromones and kairomones
for control of pest insects.
chilonis strains and kairomones
indicated that the combination of Strain 15 and hexacosane (0.1%) was most effective and registered highest egg parasitization (36.6%), followed by the combination of Strain 15 and tricosane (0.1%).
1997, Aggregation pheromone and host kairomones
of the West Indian sugarcane weevil, Metamasius hemipterus sericeus.
Fresh leaves were the most favorable site for pupation in December because kairomones
are emitted by leaves proved the attractive cue for pupation.
, the compounds emitted by insect predators are detected by their prey, and can even trigger adaptations, such a change in body size or armour, that helps protect the prey.
The mountain pine beetle reacts strongly to chemicals called pheromones that are produced by the insects during their attacks, as well as to kairomones
, aromatic compounds produced by the trees, says James Powell, a mathematician from Utah State University in Logan who models the dynamics of beetle invasions in pine forests.