juxtaglomerular cell


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to juxtaglomerular cell: juxtaglomerular cell tumor

juxtaglomerular cell

A modified smooth muscle cell in the wall of the afferent arteriole leading to a glomerulus of the kidney. This type of cell secretes renin when blood pressure decreases to activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism, which increases sodium retention, thus elevating the blood pressure.
See also: cell
References in periodicals archive ?
Hammadeh et al., "Metastatic juxtaglomerular cell tumor in a 52-year-old man," The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol.
Lebel, "A patient with a juxtaglomerular cell tumor with histological vascular invasion," Nature Clinical Practice Nephrology, vol.
Lone, "Recurrent malignant juxtaglomerular cell tumor: A rare cause of malignant hypertension in a child," Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons, vol.
Renin, released from juxtaglomerular cells, causes the proteolytic cleavage of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I which is also a target of proteolytic cleavage.
It is generally accepted that the majority of circulating renin originates from the kidney (mainly from juxtaglomerular cells).
Renin is synthesized and secreted into the blood exclusively by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney from prorenin, an inactive precursor, which is produced not only by the kidney, but by other tissues, including the adrenal glands, gonads, and the uteroplacental unit (2).
As a result of direct sympathetic stimulation of the juxtaglomerular cells and ischemia initiating the rennin-angiotensin cascade, renin and eventually AII are produced.
These granular smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole are called juxtaglomerular cells, which synthesize and store renin, a proteolytic enzyme.