Single asterisks (*) indicate jugular bulb
thrombosis (panels B, D); double asterisks (**) indicate deep-spaces cellulitis (panels A-C).
Transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus and jugular bulb
can normally show asymmetric signal intensity and enhancement and is more frequent on left due to compressive effect of left brachiocephalic vein during respiratory cycle.21 Arachnoid granulations are normal structures that protrude into the dural sinus lumen or lateral lacunae.
The right jugular bulb
and the upper right internal jugular veins were evident on the left side but not on the right.
Paragangliomas arise from glomus bodies or paraganglionic tissue in the adventitia of the jugular bulb
, usually in relation to the auricular branches of the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves.
Then, his right femoral vein was accessed and a 6-F shuttle sheath was positioned into the left jugular bulb
. Intravenous heparin was given to raise the activated clotting time to> 250 s.
JVR was defined as the retrograde flow >0 seconds detected at the distal part of the IJV (above the inferior jugular bulb
) (Figure 1) [11,13,14].
Computed tomography (CT) of the temporal bone showed evidence of a high jugular bulb
abutting the TM and the ossicular chain, with a dehiscent middle ear floor (figure, C).
Type B tumors may involve the jugular bulb
; these tumors are best accessed via an intradural and transjugular approach.
(2013) reported that variation in the anatomy of intracranial venous sinuses may be manifested by the relationship of the size and shape of the JF with that of the internal jugular vein and/or the absence or presence of a prominent superior jugular bulb
. Knowledge of the JF may be necessary in the treatment of pathologies that are generally known to affect its contents, viz.
They describe evoked potentials and electroencephalography; radiological techniques; techniques for cerebral blood flow, such as neurosonology, laser Doppler and thermal diffusion flowmetry, jugular bulb
oximetry, and near infrared spectroscopy; monitoring techniques for intracranial pressure, brain oxygen, cerebral microdialysis, and brain temperature; and device development, engineering, simulation, telemedicine, robotics, information processing, data acquisition and storage, medical informatics and multimodality monitoring, noninvasive brain monitoring, and future developments.
The following section discusses three monitoring technologies that have been studied and used in the management of neuro patients: noninvasive transcutaneous cerebral oximeters, intravascular jugular bulb
venous oxygen saturation catheters, and implanted brain tissue oxygen catheters.