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Consequently, egg-laying occurs in separate batches during different spawning seasons; thus, the reproductive strategy could be iteroparity. In consequence, the main goal of this study was to re-examine the reproductive strategy of D.
Females may be unable to predict the environmental conditions their offspring experience during either embryonic development or winter hibernation, thereby favoring a bet-hedging reproductive strategy characterized by extended iteroparity (e.g., Galbraith and Brooks 1987).
It may also facilitate their ability to lay a second brood as large as the first under experimental conditions (Morse 1994), although if individuals in the wild were constrained to lay large second broods, this trait should make iteroparity an even greater obstacle.
Reproductive uncertainty and the evolution of iteroparity: why don't flatfish put all their eggs in one basket?
The family Testudinidae, or tortoises, represents demographic extremes of iteroparity. In North America, four species of tortoises, all Gopherus spp., (Crumly 1994) are extant (Fig.
marilandica (1) does not have "opportunistic" germination and flowering strategies; (2) has a relatively long life span; (3) develops slowly; (4) delays reproduction beyond the 1st yr; (5) has repeated reproductions (iteroparity); (6) (presumably) has a low life time reproductive effort in the wild and (7) is much less phenotypically plastic than S.
The life cycle of most benthic marine molluscs (bivalves and gastropods) is characterized by a relatively short egg and larval stage, a long adult life span (usually several years), and iteroparity (8).
According to these analyses, if both b and pg were concave against the reproductive effort E, the optimal reproductive strategy was iteroparity. If both functions were convex, semelparity most often evolved.
The demography and evolution of iteroparity. American Naturalist 133:901-923.
virginica population dynamics take on more of the bethedging lifestyle, and iteroparity and long life become increasingly important components of species persistence.
The evolution of phenotypic variance with iteroparity. Evolution 43:473-475.
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