We suggest that stable isotopic tracers, which have been used widely in the earth sciences and in metabolic and other health-related studies for several decades, could be used to address many of these issues.
The second approach, which uses isotopic tracers and is described in the previous section, offers the greatest potential for use in nanotechnology.
While the initial investment to obtain the isotopic tracers may be high, the dividends of providing reliable scientific evaluations for monitoring these nanoparticles in environmental and biological systems will more than offset the initial cost.
MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] or [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) that may be regarded as a compartment, and monitoring the rate at which the isotopic tracer is diluted, as nutrients are released into the labelled pool and removed from the pool simultaneously (Fig.
2a is the mineralisation of organic N, releasing [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] into the labelled [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] pool and diluting the isotopic tracer added.
Tracer content in the diatom and copepod declined during the last week of August in part because of a 24-h hiatus (August 26-27) in tracer addition caused by pump malfunction, and also as a result of the increased tidal volume of spring tides that diluted the isotopic tracer.
Compared to the highly labeled crustacean macrobenthos, other frequently sampled subtidal invertebrates and benthivorous fishes incorporated much less of the isotopic tracer.
Nitrogen and carbon isotopic tracers
of the source and transformation of particles in the deep sea.
Such a marker, which would not require accelerator mass spectrometry or the administration of isotopic tracers, could provide information that cannot be gained from bone biochemical markers, and provide it more quickly than is possible with observed changes in bone mineral density (BMD).
Although measurements of calcium isotopes have a wide range of applications in research on bone and calcium metabolism, to date these applications have been limited to the use of artificially prepared calcium isotopic tracers such as [sup.
Stable isotopic tracers
of lead mobilized by DMSA chelation in low lead-exposed rats.