Measurements of the osmotic concentration in shrimp haemolymph were adjusted with polynomial functions (Zar 1984) and the isosmotic
point was calculated in the intersection with the line of equality.
Concentration of AFL required to induce a 50% inhibition of contractions in isolated rat aortic rings (n = 7) pre-contracted with isosmotic
solution [K.sup.+] (65.4 mM) or noradrenaline (1 [micro]M) under different extracellular concentrations of calcium.
amazonicum larvae (zoeae I, II, V, IX) and/or post-larvae exposure to different salinities (fresh water, 6, 12 or 18) about the metabolism and/or intracellular isosmotic
The ontogeny of isosmotic
intracellular regulation in the diadromous, freshwater palaemonid shrimps Macrobrachium amazonicum and M.olfersi (Decapoda).
polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution 1000 mL is required for small intestine contrast sonography (SICUS) /enteroclysis  or hydrosonography  of SB.
According to Pequeux (1995), there are two broad categories of euryhaline invertebrates in respect to osmotic regulation: the "strong regulators", which can maintain their hemolymph osmolality almost constant in a wide range of external salinity values, and the "weak regulators", which only osmoregulate within a narrow range of external salinity values and whose hemolymph osmolality drops, more or less in parallel with the isosmotic
line, when the medium salinity falls below a certain limit (PRUSCH, 1983).
1997), Protection against water loss is mainly based on the oliguria: urine will concentrate until it is isosmotic
in retation to plasma.
As a result of these reabsorptive and secretory processes, the osmolarity of the tubular fluid at the end of the PT is isosmotic
, that is, essentially equivalent to plasma, or approximately 300 mOsm/L.
Glycine has the advantages of being isosmotic
(thus it does not cause hemolysis) and nonconducting (thus allowing for electrocoagulation without charge dispersal).
They also tested the osmolarity of the perivitelline fluid surrounding the developing embryo over a wide range of salinities, and showed that the fluid changed rapidly and became almost isosmotic
with the surrounding medium.
However, this tradeoff was not observed in Pagurus minutus in water of our experimental salinity regimes, because significantly different osmoregulation abilities were not found in isosmotic
and hypersaline regimes (i.e., salinity 35-52.5 media) among crabs from the 3 populations.
Salinity was higher than the isosmotic
point (approximately 20 g [L.sup.-1]) which may have a negative effect on the energy budget of the white shrimp (Valdez et al., 2008), although values as high as 40 g [L.sup.-1] does not seem to affect significantly the growth rate of this species (Ponce-Palafox et al., 1997).