isolation precautions

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Related to isolation precautions: contact precautions


1. the process of separating, or the state of being alone.
2. the physiologic separation of a part, as by tissue culture or by interposition of inert material.
3. the extraction and purification of a chemical substance of unknown structure from a natural source.
4. the separation of infected individuals from those uninfected for the period of communicability of a particular disease; see also quarantine.
5. the separation of an individual with a radioactive implant from others to prevent unnecessary exposure to radioactivity.
6. the successive propagation of a growth of microorganisms until a pure culture is obtained.
7. in psychiatry, a defense mechanism in which emotions are separated from the ideas, impulses, or memories to which they usually connect, so that the idea or impulse enters consciousness detached from its unacceptable feeling.
isolation precautions special precautionary measures, practices, and procedures used in the care of patients with contagious or communicable diseases. The centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) provides explicit and comprehensive guidelines for control of the spread of infectious disease in care of hospitalized patients. The type of infectious disease a patient has dictates the kind of isolation precautions necessary to prevent spread of the disease to others.

Isolation practices have evolved over the years. Changes have been based on new epidemiological data, emergence of new or drug-resistant organisms, and the need to protect patients and hospital personnel. The hospital infection control practices advisory committee (HICPAC) advises the CDC on the need to update and revise guidelines and policies related to prevention of hospital acquired infections. Present guidelines distinguish two types of isolation precautions: (1) standard precautions, which synthesize major features of earlier practices of universal precautions and isolation of moist body substances; and (2) transmission-based precautions, based on routes of transmission, designed to be used together with the standard precautions, divided into the three subgroups of airborne, droplet, and contact precautions. These are identified for disorders associated with a high index of suspicion for infection.

The recommendations of the CDC for isolation practices are categorized as follows:

Category 1A: Strongly recommended for all hospitals and strongly supported by well designed experimental or epidemiological studies.

Category 1B: Strongly recommended for all hospitals and reviewed as effective by experts in the field and a consensus of HICPAC based on strong rationale and suggestive evidence, even though definitive scientific studies have not been done.

Category 2: Suggested for implementation in many hospitals; recommendations may be supported by suggestive clinical or epidemiological studies; a strong theoretical rationale or definitive studies may be applicable to some, but not all, hospitals.
General Principles of Patient Care. In addition to the specific measures taken to prevent the spread of certain types of infectious diseases, there are general principles that are basic to the care of any patient who is a source of infection to others or likely to become infected by coming in contact with others. Factors most important in preventing spread of infection are proper disinfection techniques and conscientious hand washing. The hands are used for many tasks in patient care and are therefore likely to be an excellent source of infection if they are not washed properly before and after each contact with the patient or with contaminated articles.
protective isolation (reverse isolation) a formerly common type of isolation designed to prevent contact between potentially pathogenic microorganisms and persons with seriously impaired resistance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deleted this category in 1983, but a few institutions continue to use it. Several studies have demonstrated no significant reduction in infection rates when it was being used.
social isolation a nursing diagnosis approved by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as aloneness experienced by an individual as a negative or threatening state. Contributing factors are many and varied and include delay in accomplishing developmental tasks, alterations in physical appearance or mental status, social behavior or social values that are not accepted, inadequate personal resources, and inability to engage in satisfying personal relationships. Negative feelings of aloneness are subjective, existing when the patient/client says they do. When one suspects that a patient/client is experiencing social isolation, the diagnosis must be validated by a thorough assessment. The individual may express feelings of abandonment, rejection, or dread, demonstrate or verbalize a desire for more contact with the nurse or with family members, become more irritable or restless or less physically active, or develop a sleep or eating disorder. See also impaired social interaction.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Staff knowledge of isolation precautions and procedures was measured with a seven-item multiple choice test based on information in the hospital's isolation policy and procedures (see Figure 3), with content validity established by infection prevention staff and face validity established by pilot testing of persons interested in learning about the study design.
(2) Close contact isolation precautions are attained for cases with VRE detected in culture results.
Contact and isolation precautions were taken for all symptomatic and asymptomatic infants.
Among these are isolation precautions to prevent transmission of infections, immunizations, drug/antibiotic treatment, and various barriers (e.g., gloves and masks) to protect others from disease.
If one refers to "Guideline for Isolation Precautions in Hospitals" by Garner (the second article listed under "Suggested Reading" at the end of my article), it becomes abundantly clear that precautionary measures are divided into two distinct categories: Standard Precautions and Transmission-Based Precautions.
For each agent, they delineated six "infection control groups": isolation precautions, patient placement, patient transport, cleaning and disinfection of equipment, discharge management, and postmortem care.
The researchers lifted the isolation precautions for each baby 3 months after gene therapy.
Isolation precautions first were described for hospitalized patients in 1877.
Children with clinically active tuberculosis, regardless of the site of involvement, usually do not need to be placed on isolation precautions and can be hospitalized in a regular ward environment.
Safely caring for patients with suspected EVD requires specialized protocols and training for hospital staff in the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and isolation precautions (2.3).
Bronni was admitted for medical care and, for three days, was nursed with full isolation precautions, as she met the case definition for suspected EVD.