a] is the spatial location where isoclines
intercept at coordinates ([u.
If so, the grazer isocline
will shift upward and to the left (compare grazer isoclines
Because the steady state value of the current value shadow price is lower due to the demand shock, the isoclines
must shift down in such a way so as to lower its value.
We derived the following equation for the zero-growth isocline
, equivalent to the self-thinning line, for a sampling area of 36 [cm.
However, after the initiation of pesticide spraying, for some other species of pest that indeed does exceed its economic threshold, the predator isocline
will generally decline with an associated distortion in the basins of attraction.
[ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURES 1A, B OMITTED].
Instead, populations will evolve to the highest fitness isocline
that is energetically and physiologically attainable ([ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 5 OMITTED], filled dots).
This density-dependent displacement of the predator isocline
can be sufficient to cause an intersection to the right of the hump in the prey zero isocline
, conferring stability, where the negative feedback of prey competition is stronger than the positive feedback of a decelerating functional response [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 8 OMITTED].
This yields isoclines
of maximum fitness for different floral longevities, that is, combinations of daily floral maintenance (m) together with daily pollen and seed fitness-accrual rates (1 - p and 1 - g) that result in an optimal floral longevities of t = 1, 2, .
for algae and grazer predicted by Andersen's model are shown in Fig.
Light environments representative of large gap and open areas were attained in the Huertos project buffer zones, the placement of which was guided by a map of light isoclines
of direct beam radiation developed for this site (Galo et al.
In order to derive an equation predicting G, we need to solve for the intersections of the consumption vector with the two isoclines