Blood was drawn from patients with newly diagnosed T1DM for the following assays: glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA), islet cell antibodies
(ICA), and insulin autoantibodies (IAA), routinely.
Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA) and zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies (ZnT8A) analyzed by ELISA, insulin autoantibodies (IAA) analyzed by radioimmunoassay, islet antigen 2 autoantibodies (IA-2A) analyzed by radiobinding assay, and islet cell antibodies
(ICA) analyzed by immunofluorescence assay were all negative.
Islet cell antibodies
were detected in the human pancreas for the first time in the 1970s.
Although this result was statistically not significant (p>0.05), it revealed that islet cell antibodies
were more prevalent in the relatives than those with no family history of DM.
Markers being characteristic for Type 1 diabetes and LADA are islet cell antibodies
(1CA), glutamatedecarboxylase antibodies (GAD-A) and tyrosinphosphatase antibodies ([IA.sub.2]-A).
These findings were confirmed by detection of cytomegalovirus genome in 22% of diabetic patients correlating with the presence of islet cell antibodies
The World Health Organization International Collaborative Study for islet cell antibodies
. Diabetologia 2000;43:1282-92.
The presence of autoantibodies, such as islet cell antibodies
(ICA), anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) antibodies, and protein tyrosine phosphatase antibodies have been investigated in patients with ketosis prone type 2 diabetes, and autoantibody positivity has been reported in 0% to 18% of patients (4,10,19).
Fifteen percent of these patients had islet cell antibodies
Latent autoimmune diabetes, which is believed to signal slowly progressive autoimmune [beta]-cell destruction, is a form of type 1 disease characterized by adult on-set; circulating islet cell antibodies
and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies; and no initial need for insulin therapy.
* Detection of islet cell antibodies
is not recommended for routine diagnosis of diabetes or for screening.