They are further classified into eight basic types relative to their site(s) of union or pagus (Greek for joined): Omphalopagus (umbilicus/abdomen), thoracopagus (thorax/upper abdomen), cephalopagus (maxillofacial), craniopagus (skull), ischiopagus
(pelvis), rachipagus (spine) and pygopagus (sacrum).
They can also fuse at the caudal end of the disc at the site of the cloacal membrane resulting in the so-called ischiopagus
Separation is feasible in Ischiopagus
, Pygopagus, Omphalopagus, Parastic twins.
Dystocia due to dicephalus dipus tetrabrachius ischiopagus
conjoined monster in a she buffalo.
Conjoined twins represent an uncommon congenital malformation, with an estimated incidence of 1: 50,000-1: 100,000,1 and approximate 75 Percent of cases are females.2,3 Usually, conjoined twins are classified according to the most prominent site of conjunction: thorax (thoracopagus) 40 Percent , abdomen (xiphopagus and omphalopagus) 33 Percent , sacrum (pygopagus) 18 Percent , pelvis (ischiopagus
) 6 Percent , and craniopagus (1-2 Percent).3,4
: Twins are attached at the front of the pelvis.
Lakshmi, named after the four-armed Hindu goddess of wealth, suffers from the rare condition ischiopagus
The rare condition - known as ischiopagus
- means Lakshmi was born with eight limbs, four kidneys, two spines, tangled nerves and other problems.
(9) Jodie and Mary were ischiopagus
tetrapus conjoined twins, (10) Thus, each had their own arms and legs, although they were joined at the pelvis and shared a linked spine.
Mary and Jodie were ischiopagus
tetrapus conjoined twins, which means that they were joined in the pelvic region and had four lower limbs between them.
Conjoined twins are classified according to the most prominent site of conjunction: thorax (thoracopagus); abdomen (omphalopagus); sacrum (pygopagus); pelvis (ischiopagus
); skull (cephalopagus), side by side (parapagus) and back (rachipagus).
Thorax (thoracopagus 30-40%), abdomen (omphalopagus 25-30%), pyopagus (10-20%), pelvis (ischiopagus
20%), face (cephalopagus), skull (craniopagus 2-16%), back (rachipagus).