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EE

coefficient of elastic expansion.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Irradiance levels in the latter layer varied from 3.7 to 1%, corresponding to the limit of the euphotic zone where net photosynthesis >0.
Thus, the present text is aimed to: i) describe the design guidelines for specifying the solar PV string and power converters that compose the single-phase to three-phase system; ii) explain the control algorithms; iii) evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed MPPT algorithm and overall energy management performance, under irradiance and load variations, and single-phase input voltage sag occurrence, by means of simulation results; iv) show economic feasibility study, with the purpose of assessing costs, time period and energy payback obtained with the proposed generation system.
More recently, however, these operating reserves are being appropriately managed with accurate solar forecasts, as energy costs can be strategically minimized with knowledge of the short- and long-term variations in solar irradiance (Curtright and Apt 2008).
Four types of commercial photovoltaic cells--monocrystalline silicon 3 cm/3 cm, polycrystalline silicon 2.7 cm/1.3 cm, amorphous silicon 3 cm/3 cm, and triple junction InGaP/ InGaAs/Ge 1 cm/1 cm--were measured function of temperature and irradiance and also analyzed and compared.
The aim of this paper is to observe the response in pump speed and bus voltage with the change in irradiance and temperature.
where [dE.sub.DIR]([lambda], [theta])/d[lambda] is the direct attenuated spectral irradiance and [dE.sub.SCT]([lambda]/[theta])/d[lambda] is the scattered irradiance, including all orders of multiple Rayleigh scattering.
Whenever the irradiance is below the required level converter will boost up the power generated from the panel by means of this function.
The uncertainties in the measurement of solution density, temperature, volume of solution, and irradiance were 1 kg/[m.sup.3] (0.0625 lb/[ft.sup.3]), 1[degrees]C (33.8[degrees]F), 0.625 L (0.022 [ft.sup.3]) and 3% of the pyranometer reading, respectively.
Because the spectrum and irradiance are related through Eq.
If the model of the Moon's spectral irradiance is accurate as well as precise, ideally over a broad range of lunar phase and libration angles, lunar calibration can be used to determine changes in sensor response on transfer to orbit, eliminating the current bottleneck in verifying absolute calibration post-launch.