Documented literatures have reported that iodixanol has less cardiovascular events in the process of cardioangiography, compared to ionic low-osmolar ioxaglate
 and nonionic low-osmolar iohexol .
Currently, several iodinated contrast agent formulations are used clinically, including iohexol (Omnipaque[TM], GE Healthcare), iopromide (Ultravist[TM], Bayer Healthcare), ioxaglate
(Hexabrix[TM], Mallinckrodt Imaging), iobitridol (Xenetix[TM], Guerbet), and iomeprol (Imcron[TM], Bracco).
The Following contrasts were used in the study population: iohexol (nonionic, monomer, and LOCM); sodium meglumine diatrizoate (ionic, HOCM, and monomer); iopamidol (nonionic, monomer, and LOCM); and ioxaglate
(Ionic, LOCM, and dimer).
 2005 Cr >1.2 mg/dL CAG Ioxaglate
Ozcan et al.
Three types of contrast agents (ioxaglate
, iodixanol and iopromide) were used for coronary procedure.
In another study, Ribeiro et al (21) investigated NO production in rat renal artery smooth muscle cells primary culture (rVSMC) exposed to contrast medium and found that non ionic iobitridol, low-osmolar ioxaglate
and high-osmolar ioxitalamate caused decreases in NO levels as compared to control.
In vitro, Arranz-Pena and coworkers have compared the interference by 13 different iodinated contrast agents on the Paragon by adding the different agents to control serum, and found that most agents caused a peak in the [alpha]2 fraction, but some agents (sodiummeglumine ioxaglate
, ioversol, and iomeprol) caused interference in the [beta]-fraction (4).
"From these data we conclude there is absolutely no indication that iodixanol is less harmful for kidney function than ioxaglate
or iohexol," Dr.
Of interest is the RCM ioxaglate
that whilst it is ionic, it is classified as an LOCM as it is a dimer containing more iodine atoms per particle in solution.
The interference peak in the electropherograms was located at the prealbumin zone for meglumine iotroxate, at the anodal site of the [[alpha].sub.2]-globulin fraction for meglumine amidotrizoate, in the middle of the [[alpha].sub.2]-globulin fraction for ioxitalamic acid and iobitridol, at the cathodal site of the [[alpha].sub.2]-globulin fraction for iohexol, at the anodal site of the [beta]-globulin fraction for sodium-meglumine ioxaglate
, and in the middle of the [beta]-globulin fraction for ioversol.
As a consequence, CM with lower osmolalities were developed: By forming either ionic dimers (ioxaglate
) or nonionic monomers (iopromide, iopamidol, iohexol, ioversol, iomeprol, etc.); osmolalities of ~400-800 mosmol/kg [H.sub.2]O were achieved .
MacDonald, "A comparative study of the nephrotoxicity of iohexol, iopamidol and ioxaglate
in peripheral angiography," Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, vol.