For instance, instead of using drugs to block the release or uptake of various drugs or neurotransmitters, scientists could change the electricity regulating the ion pump
, which would then change the amount of the drug or molecule inside, or outside, the cell.
provide contamination-free operation, pump all types of gases, and have long operating lives.
Capable of providing especially safe shielded high-voltage connections with models rated to 20 kV, SHV feedthroughs are proving their worth in mass spectrometers, ion pumps
, ion sources, and sputtering systems.
Most components of the analysis system, including the ion pump
, were made from 316L vacuum fired stainless steel.
In physiological conditions cytosolic calcium level is controlled by the balance between calcium influx and efflux by ion channels, ATP-dependent ion pumps
, buffers such as calbindin-D28 k, parvalbumin (3, 4).
The most important neural activity is the changing of membrane potential of a neuron, which depends on the work of ion pumps
. Among these pumps, the [Na.sup.+]/[K.sup.+] pump is the most crucial one and it consumes most of the metabolic energy.
Chemists describe experimental methods for resolving the kinetics and dynamics of ion pumps
, channels, and transporters in proteins.
They serve as ion channels , ion pumps
, and transporters  among other functions .
ELECTRIFYING APPEAL Levin acknowledges that his theory doesn't explain how normal left-right asymmetry gets started: Something has to first distribute [H.sup.+]/[K.sup.+]-ATPase and other ion pumps
and channels unevenly.
Many other ion pumps
have since been discovered, including the enzymes responsible for muscle contraction and the production of stomach acid.
Systems of this sort could potentially serve as models of cellular ion pumps
and biomolecular motors (SN: 3/22/97, p.