Steinert, "A novel function for transglutaminase 1: Attachment of long-chain [omega]-hydroxyceramides to involucrin
by ester bond formation," Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Putative stem cells residing in the basal limbal epithelium are integrin alpha9 positive and connexin 43, E-cadherin, nestin, involucrin
, K12, and K3 negative, with higher expression of EGFR .
For example, the expression of K5 and K14 is restricted to the basal layer, whereas K1 and K10 appear on more differentiated suprabasal cells , and involucrin
, loricrin, and keratolinin, in the cells of the uppermost spinous layer .
It provides a solid physical barrier and consists of a 10 nm thick layer of highly cross-linked insoluble proteins, such as involucrin
, envoplakin, periplakin, loricrin, and small proline-rich protein.
Loss of function in filaggrin and deficiencies in loricrin, involucrin
and claudins lead to epidermal barrier disruption causing transepidermal water loss and xerosis.
Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the expression of loricrin, involucrin
, LL37, and human [sz]-defensins 2 (hBD2) in skin lesions.
Expression of cornification-related molecules including involucrin
, filaggrin, caspase 14 and calcium-sensing receptor was higher in the AH
For example, involucrin
is a marker whose expression is absent in the parakeratotic areas of ILVEN but present in psoriasis .
On the other hand, in keratinocytes exposed to arsenic expression of involucrin
was decreased, a similar pattern being previously highlighted in human cSCC .
Dvorakova et al., "Modulation of keratin 1, 10 and involucrin
expression as part of the complex response of the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT to ultraviolet radiation," Interdisciplinary Toxicology, vol.
The following polyclonal primary antibodies were obtained from GeneTex (Irvine, USA): rabbit anti-human cytokeratin 5 (CK-5, Cat #GTX113219), cytokeratin 10 (CK-10, Cat #GTX108883), cytokeratin 14 (CK-14, Cat #GTX104124), loricrin (Cat #GTX116013), and involucrin
(Cat #GTX116012); rabbit anti-human transglutaminase-1 (TGM-1) polyclonal antibody (Cat #12912-3-AP) was from Proteintech (USA).
The SC is made up of corneocytes: terminally differentiated keratinocytes, highly cross-linked by transglutaminases with cornified envelope proteins such as loricrin, involucrin
, filaggrin, and small proline-rich proteins.