A further understanding of changes in the molecular forces of PSE-like chicken meat intrinsic proteins
during heating process could be useful to explain the mechanisms in the impaired functional properties of PSE-like chicken meat.
It encoded a putative protein with 281 amino acids, sharing 95.3% identity with Arabidopsis plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP, Genbank: NP_195236.1).
According to their sequence homology and sub-cellular location, plant AQPs could be subdivided in four subgroups: plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs): PIP1, PIP2 and PIP; tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), which further subdivided into 5 subgroups: a, b, g, d and e-TIP; nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs); small and basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs, further subdivided into 2 subgroups: SIP1 and SIP2); GlpF-like intrinsic proteins (GIPs).
The major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) are a large superfamily of integral membrane proteins present in all biological systems from Archaea and bacteria to eukaryotes (Engel and Stahlberg, 2002; Zardoya, 2005).
Apart from water and glycerol, various channels permeate a number of other compounds, such as N[H.sub.3] and C[O.sub.2], through AQP1, AQP4, and AQP5 in mammals, or ammonium and/or methylammonium transport B (AmtB) in bacteria (Musa-Aziz et al., 2008; Finn and Cerda, 2015); and [H.sub.2][O.sub.2], through some members of plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), Nodulin 26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), X-intrinsic proteins (XIPs), and tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) in plants (Bienert et al., 2007; Bienert and Chaumont, 2014).
This new status of the PM may help tolerant plants to maintain the essential activity of membrane intrinsic proteins for exclusion of toxic ions from the cells (Kuiper, 1985; Blits & Gallagher, 1990).
Moreover, overexpression of the rice PM intrinsic protein gene (OsPIP) in wild type Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance to 100 mM NaCl (Guo et al., 2006), suggesting a distinct role of OsPIP gene in response to salt stress.
The aquaporins or MIPs (Major Intrinsic Proteins) are proteins assembling into water channels of cell membrane and facilitate osmosis for rapid bidirectional transport of water .
Von Wiren, "Tonoplast intrinsic proteins AtTIP2;1 and AtTIP2;3 facilitate NH3 transport into the vacuole," Plant Physiology, vol.
The N-terminus is also associated with gating of fungal Aqyl (Fischer et al., 2009), while acidic pH and the [Ca.sup.2+] concentration in the cytoplasm is known to gate both plant plasma membrane intrinsic proteins
(PIPs) (Tournaire-Roux et al., 2003; Alieva et al., 2006; Verdoucq et al., 2008; Frick et al., 2013) and vertebrate aquaporins (Zeuthen and Klaerke, 1999; Nemeth-Cahalan and Hall, 2000; Virkki et al., 2001; Nemeth-Cahalan et al., 2004; Chauvigne et al., 2015a).
BLAST analysis suggests a connection between TgAQP and plant tonoplast intrinsic proteins
(TIPs) (the BLAST ranking based on the Expect (E) value favors TIP by four and eight orders of magnitude over prototypical AQPs from mammals and bacteria; see Pavlovic-Djuranovic et al., 2003).
Drosophila intrinsic proteins
(DRIP)-ir become more abundant in response to dehydration and rehydration.