racemosa SPs reflected a different mode of action from the other classes of polysulfated that have diverse structures and mechanisms of thrombin inhibition (Nishino et al., 1999; Mourao et al., 2001; Glauser et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2014; Rodrigues et al., 2016) distinct from that of UHEP, which abolished TG at 2 (intrinsic pathway
) (Figure 2) (Rodrigues et al., 2016; Rodrigues et al., 2017b) or 4 (extrinsic pathway) (data not shown) [micro]g [well-plate.sup.-1] (Rodrigues et al., 2017a; Salles et al., 2017) because of its specific pentasaccharide sequence with high antithrombin affinity displaying thrombin inhibition (Mourao, 2015).
roseus alkaloids, the anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis abilities of compound F were increased, and the induction of apoptosis in HL60 cells as a result of treatment was shown to occur through an ROS-dependent mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway
regulated by the Bcl-2 protein family.
commune is not effective as source of anticoagulant via the intrinsic pathway
. However, the blood with heparin did not coagulate even after the cut-off time of observing clotting time (300 seconds).
Activated caspase 8 can trigger the intrinsic pathway
through the cleavage of Bid.
Finally, in our experiment, we demonstrated that ethyl pyruvate ameliorated hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting intrinsic pathway
of apoptosis and autophagy.
Thus, the apoptosis induced by the Schiff base compound in HT-29 cells is possibly mediated via the intrinsic pathway
, but not the extrinsic pathway.
The intrinsic pathway
is induced by the permeability loss of the mitochondrial outer membrane.
Apoptosis can be initiated by two signaling cascades, namely, the extrinsic and the intrinsic pathway
. The classical extrinsic pathway is triggered by the binding of extracellular signals like tumor necrosis factor (TNF), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and apoptosis antigen-1 (Fas) ligand (FASL) to death receptors such as tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and FAS .
While the extrinsic apoptotic pathway is initiated by the activation of Fas (CD95) and tumor necrosis factor [alpha] receptors and their respective ligands, the intrinsic pathway
is initiated by apoptotic stresses, such as p53, and ultimately results in disruption of the mitochondrial membrane and leakage of cytochrome-c into cell cytoplasm.
Apoptosis is classically signalled by two major apoptotic pathways (12) (Figure 2): the extrinsic pathway (also called the death receptor caspase-8 mediated pathway) and the intrinsic pathway
(also called mitochondria-initiated caspase-9 pathway).
The mitochondria-dependent intrinsic pathway
involves the BCL2 members, whose main functions include embryogenesis control, tissue homeostasis, leukocyte development, and defense against pathogens.
Depending on the apoptosis-inducing signal, two different apoptosis pathways have been identified (Figure 1): the intrinsic pathway
characterized by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MMP) and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c; and the extrinsic pathway, which is initiated by death-receptor stimulation.