In humans, lower doses may be used intrathecally
.  Short-term analgesic effects were observed in rats treated with 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mg/kg ketamine intrathecal administration.
High incidence of pruritus varying between 20% to 90% has been reported following the use of sufentanil intrathecally
in some of the studies.
Hoka, "Neurotoxicity of intrathecally
administered bupivacaine involves the posterior roots/posterior white matter and is milder than lidocaine in rats," Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, vol.
In the mechanical withdrawal threshold testing, groups of rats were injected intrathecally
with saline, najanalgesin, or SP600125; the paw withdrawal threshold was measured for 24 h after injection.
To compare the subarachnoid block characteristics (onset and duration of sensory and motor block) 5[micro]g and 10[micro]g dexmedetomidine was added to 15mg 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine given intrathecally
for spinal anesthesia.
This involves using an external pump to infuse the selected medication intrathecally
and slowly titrating it according to symptoms for 2 to 3 days.
Respiratory rate decreased significantly with all three doses of xylazine and returned to normal after 90 105 and 120 minutes with 6 8 and 10 mg/kg respectively Similar effects of xylazine have been reported by Nolan and Erhardt (1990) who reported that a2 agonist xylazine produced a dose-dependent decrease in mean arterial blood pressure in conscious rabbits when injected intrathecally
through a cannula previously implanted under general anaesthesia.
They are done both intravenously and intrathecally
(into the spinal canal).
(7), (8) Boschi et a1 (13) found that antipsychotics cause hypothermia in rats when the drug is administered intraperitoneally but not when given intrathecally
. Perhaps for these reasons, in the early 1950s, before its psychotropic properties were known, chlorpromazine was used during surgery to induce artificial hibernation and suppress the body's response to cooling.
A total of 80 x [10.sup.6] cell were transplanted intrathecally
The clonidine group received bupivacaine 10 mg combined with 75 [micro]g of preservative free clonidine; the fentanyl group received bupivacaine 10 mg combined with 25 [micro]g fentanyl; and the placebo group received bupivacaine 10 mg combined with 0.5 mL distilled water, intrathecally
. All patients received an intravenous preload of 5-7 mL/kg lactated Ringer's solution before a subarachnoid block.
All the patients underwent autologous BMMNCs intrathecally
. Following cell therapy, patients underwent individualized neurorehabilitation.