We also found increased activity in large portions of the frontal and occipital lobes, including bilateral visual areas (BA17, BA18, and BA19) and areas involved in multimodal integration, such as bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS), middle intraparietal sulcus (IT, BA40), bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, BA44, BA45, and BA47), and the insula (BA13) (Figure 3, Table 2).
HA use also led to decreased fMRI activity in multimodal integration regions, such as the superior temporal sulcus (STS), the middle intraparietal sulcus (IT), and the insula.
Our results also suggest increased recruitment of brain areas involved in multimodal integration, after HA use, observed as increased fMRI activity in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), the middle intraparietal sulcus (IT, BA40), the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, BA44, BA45, and BA47), and the insula (BA13).
Abbreviations AO: Action observation MVF: Mirror visual feedback MNS: Mirror neuron system fMRI: Functional magnetic resonance imaging EEG: Electroencephalography CIMT: Constraint-induced movement training VR: Virtual reality IFG: Inferior frontal gyrus PMv: Ventral premotor cortex IPL: Inferior parietal lobule IPS: Intraparietal sulcus
MT: Mirror therapy MEG: Magnetoencephalography PET: Positron emission tomography NIRS: Near-infrared spectrometry ERD: Event-related desynchronization DCM: Dynamic casual modelling PMC: Premotor cortex SMC: Sensorimotor cortex MI: Motor imagery STG: Superior temporal gyrus SMA: Supplementary motor area SMG: Supramarginal gyrus PCC: Posterior cingulate cortex MFG: Middle frontal gyrus.
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To investigate our region-specific hypotheses, we analysed the variations in brain activity associated with the digit and letter order tasks in the two groups within the bilateral superior parietal lobule (SPL) and horizontal portion of the intraparietal sulcus (HIPS) as well as the left angular gyrus (lAG).
We predicted that the digit order task would activate bilateral parietal regions including the superior parietal cortex and the horizontal portion of the intraparietal sulcus in both groups.
In responders, the superior parietal lobule, the intraparietal sulcus, and the posterior part of the temporal lobe tended to be spared, but not in nonresponders.
The former two (P5 and P8) sustained rather small lesions (19.7 and 44.1[cm.sup.3]; Table 1) which spared the superior parietal lobule, the intraparietal sulcus, and basal ganglia.
A recent study of factors influencing maturational and musical training found age-related effects at the left TPJ, ventral premotor cortex, and intraparietal sulcus
during music processing .