were used in proximal fractures in association with cerclage (n=1) for reduction of the subtrochanteric fracture, and tension band (n=1) for avulsion of the greater trochanter.
The exposed part of the intramedullary pin
was bent 90[degrees] laterally, perpendicular to the long axis of the tibiotarsus.
(1992) have reported combine use of intramedullary pin
along with cerclage wiring for treatment of femoral fracture in a lion tailed macaque but in the present clinical case, no other implant except for single intramedullary pinning was done without any post-operative complications.
Two years earlier, a bone fracture at the same site was surgically repaired with an intramedullary pin
, which remained implanted at the site.
Management of these fracture usually involves the use of Kirschner wires or intramedullary pins
(Harasen, 2001), the prognosis being good to excellent.
A 2.8-mm (7/64-in) Steinmann pin (Steinmann intramedullary pin
, IMEX Veterinary Inc, Longview, TX, USA) was inserted through the end of 1 plastic tube, through the plastic plug, and driven to the middle of the second plastic tube section.
Key words: orthopedic surgery, external skeletal fixator intramedullary pin
tie- in, biomechanics, avian, red-tailed hawk, Buteo jamaicensis
In group A fracture site was reduced and immobilized with cortical screws alone after taking lag effect, while in group B, intramedullary pins
with multiple full cerclage wires were used for rigid immobilization of the fracture segments.
In a recent study, Strauss and associates reported on the complications associated with the use of intramedullary pins
for the treatment of midshaft clavicle fractures.
However, treatment such as external coaptation (slings, bandages, casts, splints, etc.), intramedullary pins
or rods, bone plate fixation, or modifications of any of the traditional means of external skeleton fixation [3-5] not only fails for rehabilitating wild birds, but also involves prolonged hospitalization of avian patients.
The methods of treatment for fracture include stall confinement, external coaptation methods (Anderson et al., 1994), transfixation pinning (Verschooten et al., 1972, Martens et al., 1998) and internal fixation techniques such as intramedullary pins
, plates and screws (Tulleners, 1986).
Treatment of fractures of forearm with intramedullary pins
. American Journal of Surgery.