The bypass resection surgery, laser, intubation, chemotherapy, dilatation, external beam radiotherapy, and intraluminal brachytherapy can be done to palliate the dysphagia.
Histopathologically proven squamous cell carcinoma and/or adenocarcinoma at thoracic esophagus, intraluminal brachytherapy feasible, ECOG performance  scale 1-2, and advanced/metastatic disease were included in our study.
Intraluminal brachytherapy was done 1-2 weeks after completion of external beam radiotherapy.
Patients with advanced/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma and/or adenocarcinoma at thoracic esophagus and intraluminal brachytherapy feasible were included in our study.
The use of [sup]125I seed strands for intraluminal brachytherapy
of malignant obstructive jaundice.
Morphologic alterations in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after preoperative high dose rate intraluminal brachytherapy
. Cancer 1996;77:2200-5<ext-link xlink:href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19960601)77:113.0.CO;2-T" ext-link-type="uri">http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19960601)77:113.0.CO;2-T.
A multicentre Dutch study compared a single 12 Gy dose of intraluminal brachytherapy with placement of a stent in 209 patients.
Late esophageal toxicity using a combination of external beam radiation, intraluminal brachytherapy and 5-fluorouracil infusion in carcinoma of the esophagus.
Over the past 10 years, several animal experiments [sup],,, and Phase I–II clinical studies [sup],,,, have demonstrated the short-term efficacy and safety of intraluminal brachytherapy with [sup]125 I seed-loaded stents.
The use of [sup]125 I seed strands for intraluminal brachytherapy of malignant obstructive jaundice.
Impact of intraluminal brachytherapy on survival outcome for radiation therapy for unresectable biliary tract cancer: A propensity-score matched-pair analysis.
and selfexpandable stents in nonresectable biliary malignancies - The question of long-term palliation.