Their origin may involve congenital factors, such as when they occur in neonates, and acquired factors that are probably related to an increase in the intralaryngeal
pressure, such as chronic cough, straining, blowing into musical instruments, glass blowing, and laryngeal carcinoma.
Broadly, these can be classified into intralaryngeal
(including carcinoma, amyloidosis, and papillomatosis) and extralaryngeal (including ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and oncocytic cysts) [2, 4, 5].
Functional factors which increase the intralaryngeal
pressure, such as coughing, straining, singing and blowing wind instruments also are of importance in the etiopathogenesis of laryngoceles (Acquired type of Laryngocele).
Radiological diagnosis is primarily by means of CT scan, which can show the characteristic intralaryngeal
and extralaryngeal expansion, the relationship with the laryngeal ventricle and thyroid membrane, and the presence of carcinoma.
Microanatomic studies have shown that the ILN divides intralaryngeal
branches to anastomose with branches of the internal laryngeal nerve.
Goding, Jr., "The Effects of Intralaryngeal
C[O.sub.2] and Acetazolamide on the Laryngeal Chemoreflex" Annals of Otolaryngology, Rhinology, and Laryngology 109 (2000): 921-928; G.
Artificial respiration by direct intralaryngeal
intubation with a modified O'Dwyer tube and a new graduated air-pump in its applications to medical and surgical practice.
or intratracheal surgery (5).
The text contains ten chapters on breath management, posture, laryngeal and intralaryngeal
function, resonance balancing, nasal continuants and nonnasal consonants, the phenomenon of vibrato, registration, healthy singing, pedagogical issues and performance concerns.
Although cases of presenting laryngeal metastases leading to the discovery of an underlying RCC have been reported previously,[2-5] there have been only 2 reports in the English literature of metastasis to the larynx occurring years after initial nephrectomy, both of which were not isolated recurrences.[6,7] Review of the literature has revealed only 2 reported cases in the German literature of isolated laryngeal metastasis to the anterior commissure and the false vocal cords, both occurring 6 years after nephrectomy.[8,9] We believe this case to be the first example of an isolated intralaryngeal
, supraglottic RCC metastasis, occurring 7 years after potentially curative radical nephrectomy.
The book is divided into ten parts: breath management, posture, laryngeal and intralaryngeal
function, resonance balancing, nasal continuants and non-nasal consonants, the phenomenon of vibrato, registration, healthy singing, pedagogy issues and performance concerns.
Blunt traumatic laryngeal injury in children often leads to intralaryngeal
soft-tissue damage, which can quickly compromise an already small airway.