These clinical indices of aggression include size of tumour, nodal metastases, high Bloom-Richardson histological grading, lymphovascular invasion and an extensive intraduct
However, the most important causes are intraduct papilloma (benign) and very rarely breast cancer.
This enables detection of small tumours, intraduct papillomas and some other benign changes.
multifocality, lobular radiation fibrosis carcinoma, extensive intraduct
carcinoma Table 2: Current partial breast irradiation Phase III trials Trial Target accrual Partial breast arms Time NSABP-39 9000 Multi-source 192 lr 5 days Single-source 192 lr 5 days External beam RT 5 days RAPID 2198 External beam RT 5 days TARGIT 2000 Intraoperative x-rays 1 day ELIOT 2000 Intraoperative electrons 1 day IMPORT LOW 1935 External beam IMRT 3 weeks GEC-ESTRO 1170 Multi-source 192 lr HDR 3.
The cases included normal breast tissue obtained from 6 reduction mammoplasty specimens, 8 cases with fibrocystic change, 8 fibroadenomas, 5 intraduct
papillomas, 2 lactating adenomas, 3 cases with duct ectasia, 7 gynecomastia, and 63 invasive carcinomas including 3 male cases.
Causes of nipple discharge Physiological Galactorrhoea Mammary duct ectasia Intraduct
papilloma Carcinoma Purulent discharge from breast abscess Drugs (e.