7,9,10) These observations suggest that adrenal and intracrine
contributions to the tumour androgen signaling axis represent important targets for further hormonal modulation of prostate cancer.
For example, the differentiation of endothelial cells and cancer cells is regulated by VEGF through an intracrine
mechanism (Carmeliet et al.
The single intracrine
FGF subfamily is the FGF11/12/13/14 subfamily.
1,2,4) A second enzyme, CYP27B1, is found in over 30 cell types and acts to further metabolize 25(OH) D to form the locally produced intracrine
Indeed after menopause nearly 100% estrogens are formed in peripheral tissues and exert their effects locally in a paracrine or intracrine
It has become clear that angiogenic factors produced by leukemic blasts may also act in an autocrine or intracrine
fashion, thereby stimulating cell proliferation and survival through a mechanism independent from angiogenesis (6).
DHEA has indirect endocrine and intracrine
actions due to conversion to androgens and estrogens.
77,81-83) Thus, it has been proposed that local expression of POMC peptides and their corresponding receptors may alter melanoma behavior through autocrine, intracrine
, or paracrine mechanisms and/or through the modulation of the local immune and vascular systems.
Tibolone (Livial) is an intracrine
steroid with estrogenic, progestogenic, and androgenic activities depending upon the various end organs at which it is metabolized.
This new drug is the latest breakthrough for the treatment of advanced cases and is the first-in-class intracrine
androgen antagonist for patients whose cancer has stopped responding to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT).
from the testes and adrenal glands) to paracrine, autocrine and intracrine
sources within the tumour micro-environment.
In humans, DHEA is a crucial precursor of sex steroid biosynthesis and exerts indirect endocrine and intracrine
actions following conversion to androgens and estrogens.