I have read the original article entitled "Effectiveness of medial-wedge insoles for children with intoeing
gait who fall easily" by Hasashi Mouri et al.
Hong Kong College of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2008) Intoeing
and Out-toeing in Children [online] Available from: http://pic.hkcos.org.hk/hkcosweb/paper.jsp?id=FC7403A1C698DBE566CFC5C7052229BF&bpid=ankle [Accessed 9th March 2 010]
Almost all patients in our study never had intoeing
developmental hip dysplasia, perthes disease, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, coxa vara, rickets and lower leg deformities like intoeing
Abnormal femoral anteversionis associated with clinical manifestations ranging from benign intoeing
gait to severe orthopaedic problems.
in a 14-year-old girl," Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no.
Aside from flat feet, other foot conditions affecting children include intoeing
, where both feet point inward when walking; knock knees, where the knees overlap if the child is instructed to stand up straight; and Hallux valgus, or the inward deviation of the big toe.
The causes are still debated, although the structural conditions giving rise to intoeing
can generally be correlated with the age of onset.
At latest follow-up, 35 months after the initial visit, the patient was ambulating independently but with marked intoeing
, primarily due to internal tibial torsion.
Later chapters examine specific conditions such as clubfoot, metatarsus adductus, and intoeing
gait, as well as footwear and orthoses.
Approximately two-thirds of the children referred kept their initial appointments.|6~ Of the almost 400 students referred for follow-up or treatment at The Hospital for Special Surgery, the most common reasons for referral include scoliosis, flat feet, intoeing
, knee and ankle pain, hip range of motion, and elbow, hip, back, or foot pain.
In this study, therefore, we aimed to investigate the parent and child-reported effectiveness of MWI for children with intoeing
gait who are prone to fall.