pertaining to the intestine.
a surgical procedure in which all but a short section of the proximal jejunum and terminal ileum is bypassed in order to bring about malabsorption of digested food. The procedure is done for the purpose of correcting obesity
. Patients having this type of surgery must be meticulously managed so that severe nutritional cirrhosis
and serious loss of water and electrolytes are avoided. Called also jejunoileal bypass
and jejunoileal shunt
intestinal flu a popular term for what may be any of several disorders of the stomach and intestinal tract. The symptoms are nausea, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. During the acute stage all foods should be avoided. Carbonated soft drinks such as ginger ale or cola can be taken in moderation to relieve the nausea. When the symptoms subside, the diet should at first be confined to liquids and soft, bland foods. Milk and dairy products, butter and fats generally, fruits, and greens should be avoided completely until the patient is free of all symptoms.
any hindrance to the passage of the intestinal contents. Causes may be mechanical or neural or both. Some of the more common mechanical causes are hernia
of the peritoneum, volvulus
, malignant or benign tumor, congenital defect, and local inflammation, as in diverticulitis
. Failure of peristalsis (adynamic ileus
) is frequently associated with peritonitis
; it also may occur with gallstones
, heavy metal poisoning
, infection, and spinal injury.
. The most characteristic symptoms are abdominal pain, vomiting, and distention. The symptoms may be mild at first and in its early stages the condition can be confused with less serious disorders of the intestinal tract. Under no circumstances should the patient be given a cathartic
or other laxative
, because that will aggravate the situation. If the obstruction continues the patient suffers from dehydration and shock because of inadequate absorption of fluids, electrolytes, and nutrients from the intestinal tract. If the bowel becomes strangulated and circulation to the bowel wall is obstructed, the patient shows signs of peritonitis with extreme tenderness and rigidity of the abdomen.
Diagnosis. The diagnosis of obstruction can usually, but not always, be made from plain abdominal radiographs. If there is a question, a gastrointestinal series with barium will usually resolve the issue quickly.
. The basic steps of treatment are decompression of the intestine, replacement of fluids and electrolytes, and removal of the cause of the obstruction. Decompression is accomplished by intubation with a special tube (usually the miller-abbott tube
) designed to reach past the pyloric sphincter and into the intestine. Constant suction is then applied to remove accumulations of gas and liquids. Fluids, sodium chloride, and glucose are administered intravenously at a specific rate as prescribed. Transfusions of whole blood plasma may be given as necessary to restore normal blood values.
Surgical removal of the cause of obstruction is necessary in cases of complete obstruction. If there is no evidence of strangulation of the bowel, the surgeon may choose to postpone surgery until dehydration and shock have been overcome and a normal electrolyte balance is restored. The type of surgical procedure performed depends on the cause of the obstruction and whether or not the intestine is gangrenous. In some cases a colostomy may be necessary along with removal of the damaged portion of the bowel. A surgical incision into the cecum with insertion of a drainage tube (cecostomy
) may be done when intestinal intubation is not successful in relieving distention.
. Assessment of the patient with intestinal obstruction includes noting the location and character of abdominal pain, degree of distention, character of the bowel sounds, and occurrence or absence of bowel movements or passing of flatus. Should defecation occur, a specimen is saved for examination and laboratory analysis. If there is vomiting, the amount and special characteristics of the vomitus should be noted and recorded. In severe cases of obstruction of the small bowel the vomitus may contain fecal material because of the reversal of peristalsis and forcing of the intestinal contents backward into the stomach. Foods and fluids by mouth are restricted. Frequent mouth care is necessary to relieve the dryness and foul taste that accompanies intestinal obstruction and vomiting. Urinary output is measured and recorded because of the possibility of decreased urinary output related to dehydration.
Preoperative Care. If conservative measures fail to relieve the obstruction, or if the bowel has become strangulated, surgery is indicated. Suction siphonage, once initiated, is continued and the intestinal tube is left in place when the patient goes to the operating room.
Routine postoperative care of the patient with abdominal surgery is indicated. Specific measures depend on the type of surgical procedure done. Suction siphonage is usually continued until peristalsis resumes. Results of the assessment of bowel sounds and the passing of flatus or feces should be noted on the patient's chart because they indicate a return of normal peristaltic movements of the bowel. In some cases a cecostomy tube or rectal tube is inserted during surgery; the tube is attached to a drainage system and the amount and type of material collected in the system are recorded. If there is evidence that the tube has become obstructed the surgeon should be notified. The skin around the site of insertion of a cecostomy tube should be protected with a skin barrier. The area must be washed frequently to avoid erosion of the skin by intestinal contents leaking around the tube. (See colostomy
for patient care after that procedure.)
the small and large intestines in continuity; this long, coiled tube is the part of the digestive system
where most of the digestion of food takes place. (See color plates.) The small intestine
has three parts: the duodenum
(connected to the stomach), the jejunum
, and the ileum
. The small intestine is small in diameter but very long (about 6.1 m). The large intestine,
which starts just below the ileum, is about 1.5 m long. It is made up of the cecum
(to which the appendix
is attached), the colon
(comprising the ascending, transverse, and descending colon and the sigmoid), and the rectum
The digestion of food is completed in the small intestine. The digested food is absorbed through the walls of the small intestine into the blood. Indigestible parts of the food pass into the large intestine. Here the liquid from the wastes is gradually absorbed back into the body through the intestinal walls. The waste itself is formed into fairly solid feces and pushed down into the rectum for evacuation.
Among the disorders of the intestinal tract are the disturbances of function, such as diarrhea
, and irritable bowel syndrome
; the organic diseases, ulcerative colitis
, and ileitis
; and communicable diseases, such as dysentery
. Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by constipation, sometimes alternating with diarrhea. Ulcerative colitis is a disorder in which ulcers may appear in the wall of the large intestine. Ileitis is a disorder of the ileum, or lower portion of the small intestine. A symptom of both is diarrhea. Dysentery, which is characterized by diarrhea, is the result of infection by bacteria, viruses, or various parasites.
a longitudinal assemblage of tissues or organs, especially a number of anatomic structures arranged in series and serving a common function, such as the gastrointestinal or urinary tract; also used in reference to a bundle
) of nerve fibers having a common origin, function, and termination within the central nervous system.
the organs, ducts, and other structures that participate in secretion (the liver), storage (the gallbladder), and delivery (hepatic and bile ducts) of bile into the duodenum. See illustration.
Anatomy of the gallbladder and biliary tract. From Aspinall and Taylor-Robinson, 2002.
corticospinal t's two groups of nerve fibers (the anterior and lateral corticospinal tracts) that originate in the cerebral cortex and run through the spinal cord.
dorsolateral tract a group of nerve fibers in the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord dorsal to the posterior column.
the stomach and intestine in continuity; see also digestive system
iliotibial tract a thickened longitudinal band of fascia lata extending from the tensor muscle downward to the lateral condyle of the tibia.
optic tract the nerve tract proceeding backward from the optic chiasm, around the cerebral peduncle, and dividing into a lateral and medial root, which end in the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate body, respectively.
pyramidal t's collections of motor nerve fibers arising in the brain and passing down through the spinal cord to motor cells in the anterior horns.
uveal tract the vascular tunic of the eye, comprising the choroid, ciliary body, and iris.
Patient discussion about intestinal tract
Q. I recently had my surgery for bowel obstruction? I recently had my surgery for bowel obstruction? None of the diet was restricted for me by doctor but should I go for any special diet.
A. I had surgery in 08/08 during having a c-section and hernia repair, and I'm having diarrhea all the time. I don't know what to eat nor what medicines to take. Only Immodium AD helps temporary. If I have an appointment, I don't eat breakfast or lunch. I come home and eat dinner. About 30 minutes after eating, I'm in the bathroom. Can someone help me please? I have to return back to work next month, and I don't want to be in the bathroom more than I am at my desk.
Q. Can Alcoholism makes you vulnerable to intestine infections? A friend of mine is a heavy drinker, he had something like 5 infections in the past year. Is it connected?
Q. What is the connection between bowel disease and arthritis? My son suffers from ulcerative colitis, and the doctor said that his recent joint pain can be as a result of the colitis. Why is that?
A. Although ulcerative colitis happens mainly in the colon, it is a systemic disease, and patients may present with symptoms and complications outside the colon. These include musculoskeletal complications such as arthritis (for instance- ankylosing spondylitis). The exact mechanism of this injury is unknown. More discussions about intestinal tract