intestinal obstruction


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intestinal

 [in-tes´tĭ-nal]
pertaining to the intestine.
intestinal bypass a surgical procedure in which all but a short section of the proximal jejunum and terminal ileum is bypassed in order to bring about malabsorption of digested food. The procedure is done for the purpose of correcting obesity. Patients having this type of surgery must be meticulously managed so that severe nutritional cirrhosis and serious loss of water and electrolytes are avoided. Called also jejunoileal bypass and jejunoileal shunt.
intestinal flu a popular term for what may be any of several disorders of the stomach and intestinal tract. The symptoms are nausea, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. During the acute stage all foods should be avoided. Carbonated soft drinks such as ginger ale or cola can be taken in moderation to relieve the nausea. When the symptoms subside, the diet should at first be confined to liquids and soft, bland foods. Milk and dairy products, butter and fats generally, fruits, and greens should be avoided completely until the patient is free of all symptoms.
intestinal obstruction any hindrance to the passage of the intestinal contents. Causes may be mechanical or neural or both. Some of the more common mechanical causes are hernia, adhesions of the peritoneum, volvulus, intussusception, malignant or benign tumor, congenital defect, and local inflammation, as in diverticulitis. Failure of peristalsis (adynamic ileus) is frequently associated with peritonitis; it also may occur with gallstones, uremia, heavy metal poisoning, infection, and spinal injury.
Symptoms. The most characteristic symptoms are abdominal pain, vomiting, and distention. The symptoms may be mild at first and in its early stages the condition can be confused with less serious disorders of the intestinal tract. Under no circumstances should the patient be given a cathartic or other laxative, because that will aggravate the situation. If the obstruction continues the patient suffers from dehydration and shock because of inadequate absorption of fluids, electrolytes, and nutrients from the intestinal tract. If the bowel becomes strangulated and circulation to the bowel wall is obstructed, the patient shows signs of peritonitis with extreme tenderness and rigidity of the abdomen.
Diagnosis. The diagnosis of obstruction can usually, but not always, be made from plain abdominal radiographs. If there is a question, a gastrointestinal series with barium will usually resolve the issue quickly.
Treatment. The basic steps of treatment are decompression of the intestine, replacement of fluids and electrolytes, and removal of the cause of the obstruction. Decompression is accomplished by intubation with a special tube (usually the miller-abbott tube) designed to reach past the pyloric sphincter and into the intestine. Constant suction is then applied to remove accumulations of gas and liquids. Fluids, sodium chloride, and glucose are administered intravenously at a specific rate as prescribed. Transfusions of whole blood plasma may be given as necessary to restore normal blood values.

Surgical removal of the cause of obstruction is necessary in cases of complete obstruction. If there is no evidence of strangulation of the bowel, the surgeon may choose to postpone surgery until dehydration and shock have been overcome and a normal electrolyte balance is restored. The type of surgical procedure performed depends on the cause of the obstruction and whether or not the intestine is gangrenous. In some cases a colostomy may be necessary along with removal of the damaged portion of the bowel. A surgical incision into the cecum with insertion of a drainage tube (cecostomy) may be done when intestinal intubation is not successful in relieving distention.
Patient Care. Assessment of the patient with intestinal obstruction includes noting the location and character of abdominal pain, degree of distention, character of the bowel sounds, and occurrence or absence of bowel movements or passing of flatus. Should defecation occur, a specimen is saved for examination and laboratory analysis. If there is vomiting, the amount and special characteristics of the vomitus should be noted and recorded. In severe cases of obstruction of the small bowel the vomitus may contain fecal material because of the reversal of peristalsis and forcing of the intestinal contents backward into the stomach. Foods and fluids by mouth are restricted. Frequent mouth care is necessary to relieve the dryness and foul taste that accompanies intestinal obstruction and vomiting. Urinary output is measured and recorded because of the possibility of decreased urinary output related to dehydration.
Preoperative Care. If conservative measures fail to relieve the obstruction, or if the bowel has become strangulated, surgery is indicated. Suction siphonage, once initiated, is continued and the intestinal tube is left in place when the patient goes to the operating room.
Postoperative Care. Routine postoperative care of the patient with abdominal surgery is indicated. Specific measures depend on the type of surgical procedure done. Suction siphonage is usually continued until peristalsis resumes. Results of the assessment of bowel sounds and the passing of flatus or feces should be noted on the patient's chart because they indicate a return of normal peristaltic movements of the bowel. In some cases a cecostomy tube or rectal tube is inserted during surgery; the tube is attached to a drainage system and the amount and type of material collected in the system are recorded. If there is evidence that the tube has become obstructed the surgeon should be notified. The skin around the site of insertion of a cecostomy tube should be protected with a skin barrier. The area must be washed frequently to avoid erosion of the skin by intestinal contents leaking around the tube. (See colostomy for patient care after that procedure.)
intestinal tract the small and large intestines in continuity; this long, coiled tube is the part of the digestive system where most of the digestion of food takes place. (See color plates.) The small intestine has three parts: the duodenum (connected to the stomach), the jejunum, and the ileum. The small intestine is small in diameter but very long (about 6.1 m). The large intestine, which starts just below the ileum, is about 1.5 m long. It is made up of the cecum (to which the appendix is attached), the colon (comprising the ascending, transverse, and descending colon and the sigmoid), and the rectum.

The digestion of food is completed in the small intestine. The digested food is absorbed through the walls of the small intestine into the blood. Indigestible parts of the food pass into the large intestine. Here the liquid from the wastes is gradually absorbed back into the body through the intestinal walls. The waste itself is formed into fairly solid feces and pushed down into the rectum for evacuation.

Among the disorders of the intestinal tract are the disturbances of function, such as diarrhea, constipation, and irritable bowel syndrome; the organic diseases, ulcerative colitis, appendicitis, and ileitis; and communicable diseases, such as dysentery. Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by constipation, sometimes alternating with diarrhea. Ulcerative colitis is a disorder in which ulcers may appear in the wall of the large intestine. Ileitis is a disorder of the ileum, or lower portion of the small intestine. A symptom of both is diarrhea. Dysentery, which is characterized by diarrhea, is the result of infection by bacteria, viruses, or various parasites.

obstruction

 [ob-struk´shun]
1. the act of blocking or clogging.
2. the state or condition of being clogged; see also atresia. Called also blockade, closure, and occlusion.
chronic airflow obstruction (chronic airway obstruction) name given to a group of disorders in which the upper or lower airways are chronically obstructed; it includes chronic bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, pneumoconiosis, and any other type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
intestinal obstruction see intestinal obstruction.

intestinal obstruction

any obstruction that results in failure of the contents of the intestine to progress through the lumen of the bowel. The most common cause is a mechanical blockage resulting from adhesions, impacted feces, tumor of the bowel, hernia, intussusception, volvulus, or the strictures of inflammatory bowel disease. Obstruction may also be the result of paralytic ileus. Obstruction of the small bowel may cause severe pain, vomiting of fecal matter, dehydration, and eventually a drop in blood pressure. Obstruction of the colon causes less severe pain, marked abdominal distension, and constipation. Radiographic examination may reveal the level of obstruction and its cause. Treatment includes the evacuation of intestinal contents by means of an intestinal tube. Surgical repair is sometimes necessary. Fluid balance and electrolyte balance are restored by carefully monitored IV infusion. Nonnarcotic analgesics are usually prescribed to prevent the decrease in intestinal motility that often accompanies the administration of narcotic analgesics. Also called
Usage notes: (informal)
ileus. See also hernia, intussusception, volvulus.

intestinal obstruction

Bowel obstruction Surgery Obstruction of the intestine due to either mechanical causes–eg, volvulus, fecal impaction or nonmechanical causes–eg, paralytic ileus, see there.

intestinal obstruction

Blockage of the inner bore of the INTESTINE so that forward movement of the contents is prevented. This may occur as a congenital condition, as a result of twisting of the bowel (VOLVULUS), from STRANGULATION by swelling in a HERNIA, by a sleeve-like ‘telescoping’ into itself (INTUSSUSCEPTION), by impaction of hard faeces, by an internal or encircling tumour, or by a failure of the normal mechanism of PERISTALSIS by which the contents are moved along. See also ILEUS. Obstruction causes severe colicky abdominal pain, distention, constipation and often vomiting. Treatment is urgent.

Intestinal Obstruction

DRG Category:329
Mean LOS:14.9 days
Description:SURGICAL: Major Small and Large Bowel Procedures With Major CC
DRG Category:389
Mean LOS:4.6 days
Description:MEDICAL: Gastrointestinal Obstruction With CC

Intestinal obstruction occurs when a blockage obstructs the normal flow of contents through the intestinal tract. Obstruction of the intestine causes the bowel to become vulnerable to ischemia. The intestinal mucosal barrier can be damaged, allowing intestinal bacteria to invade the intestinal wall and causing fluid exudation, which leads to hypovolemia and dehydration. About 7 L of fluid per day is secreted into the small intestine and stomach and is usually reabsorbed. During obstruction, however, fluid accumulates, causing abdominal distention and pressure on the mucosal wall, which can lead to peritonitis and perforation. Obstructions can be partial or complete. The most common type of intestinal obstruction is one of the small intestine from fibrous adhesions.

The patient’s mortality depends on the type of lesion causing the small bowel obstruction (closed-loop or strangulated) and the time until diagnosis and treatment; when an early diagnosis is made, mortality is low, but if more than 75% of the small bowel is necrotic at the time of surgery, the mortality rate is 65%. Complications of intestinal obstruction include bacteremia, secondary infection, or metabolic alkalosis or acidosis. If it is left untreated, a complete intestinal obstruction can cause death within a few hours from hypovolemic or septic shock and vascular collapse.

Causes

The two major types of intestinal obstruction are mechanical and neurogenic (or nonmechanical). Neurogenic obstruction occurs primarily after manipulation of the bowel during surgery or with peritoneal irritation, pain of thoracolumbar origin, or intestinal ischemia. It is also caused by the effect of trauma or toxins on the nerves that regulate peristalsis, electrolyte imbalances, and neurogenic abnormalities such as spinal cord lesions. Mechanical obstruction of the bowel is caused by physical blockage of the intestine. Examples of mechanical obstruction include adhesions and strangulated hernias (usually associated with the small intestine), volvulus (twisting of the intestine) of the cecum or sigmoid, intussusception (telescoping of the bowel), strictures, fecal or barium impaction, carcinomas (usually associated with the large intestine), or foreign bodies such as gallstones and fruit pits.

Genetic considerations

No clear genetic contributions to susceptibility have been defined.

Gender, ethnic/racial, and life span considerations

Intestinal obstructions can occur at any age, in all races and ethnicities, and in both sexes, but they are more common in patients who have undergone major abdominal surgery or have congenital abnormalities of the bowel. When it occurs in a child, the obstruction is most likely to be an intussusception. Although small bowel obstructions in children are uncommon, the diagnosis should be considered for any child with persistent vomiting, abdominal distention, and abdominal pain; early diagnosis is critical because delayed diagnosis and treatment are associated with significant complications.

Global health considerations

No data are available.

Assessment

History

Establish any predisposing factors: surgery, especially abdominal surgery; radiation therapy; gallstones; Crohn’s disease; diverticular disease; ulcerative colitis; or a family history of colorectal cancer. Ask if the patient has had hiccups, which is often a symptom of intestinal obstruction.

To establish the diagnosis of small bowel obstruction, ask about vomiting fecal contents, wavelike abdominal pain, or abdominal distention. Elicit a history of intense thirst, generalized malaise, or aching. A paralytic ileus usually causes a distended abdomen, with or without pain, but usually without cramping. To establish the diagnosis of large bowel obstruction, which has a slower onset of symptoms, ask about recent constipation with a history of spasmodic abdominal pain several days afterward. Establish a history of hypogastric pain and nausea. Ask if the patient has been vomiting. To establish neurogenic obstruction, ask about abdominal pain. Neurogenic obstruction characteristically produces diffuse abdominal discomfort rather than colicky pain. Establish a history of vomiting; ask the patient to describe the vomitus, which may consist of gastric and bile contents but rarely fecal contents.

Physical examination

The most common symptoms are abdominal pain and distention and vomiting. Inspect the patient’s abdomen for distention. Observe the patient’s abdomen for signs of visible peristalsis or loops of large bowel. Measure the patient’s abdominal girth every 4 hours to observe the progress of an obstruction. Auscultate the patient’s abdomen for bowel sounds in all four quadrants; you may hear rushes or borborygmus (rumbling noises in the bowels). Always auscultate the abdomen for up to 5 minutes for bowel sounds before palpation. Lack of bowel sounds can indicate a paralytic ileus. High-pitched tingling sounds with rushes can indicate a mechanical obstruction. Palpate all four quadrants of the abdomen to determine areas of localized tenderness, guarding, and rebound tenderness.

Assess the patient for tachycardia, a narrowed pulse pressure, urine output less than 30 mL/hr, and delayed capillary blanching—all indicators of severe hypovolemia and impending shock. Assess for fever, which may indicate peritonitis. Inspect the patient’s skin for loss of turgor and mucous membranes for dryness.

Psychosocial

The patient with an intestinal obstruction is acutely ill and may need emergency intervention. Assess the patient’s level of anxiety and fear. Assess the patient’s coping skills, support system, and the significant other's response to the illness.

Diagnostic highlights

TestNormal ResultAbnormality With ConditionExplanation
Chest and abdominal x-rayNormal abdominal structuresDistended loops of bowel; may have a ladderlike pattern with air-fluid levelsIdentifies free air under the diaphragm if perforation has occurred or blockage of lumen of bowel with distal passage of fluid and air (partial) or complete obstruction
Water-soluble contrast enemaNormal abdominal structuresBlockage of lumen of bowelIdentifies site and severity of colonic obstruction

Other Tests: Complete blood count, serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, abdominal computed tomography scan with contrast, abdominal ultrasound

Primary nursing diagnosis

Diagnosis

Fluid volume deficit related to abnormal loss of gastrointestinal fluids

Outcomes

Fluid balance; Hydration; Nutritional status: Food and fluid intake; Bowel elimination; Knowledge: Disease process

Interventions

Fluid management; Intravenous insertion and therapy; Surveillance; Venous access devices maintenance; Vital signs monitoring

Planning and implementation

Collaborative

surgical.
Surgery is often indicated for a complete mechanical obstruction. The operative procedure varies with the location and type of obstruction. A strangulated bowel constitutes a surgical emergency. A bowel resection may be necessary in some obstructions.

Postoperative care includes monitoring the patient’s cardiopulmonary response and identifying surgical complications. The highest priority is maintaining airway, breathing, and circulation. The patient may require temporary endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation to manage airway and breathing. The circulation may need support from parenteral fluids, and total parenteral nutrition may be prescribed if the patient has protein deficits. Care for the surgical site and notify the physician if you observe any signs of poor wound healing, bleeding, or infection.

medical.
Medical management with intravenous fluids, electrolytes, and administration of blood or plasma may be required for patients whose obstruction is caused by infection or inflammation or by a partial obstruction. Insertion of a nasogastric (NG) tube, often ordered by the physician to rest and decompress the bowel, greatly decreases abdominal distention and patient discomfort.

Analgesic medication may be ordered after the cause of the obstruction is known, but it may be withheld until the diagnosis of intestinal obstruction is confirmed so as to not mask pain, which is an important clinical indicator. Explore nonpharmacologic methods of pain relief. The physician may order oxygen. Usually, until the patient is stabilized, her or his condition precludes any oral intake.

Pharmacologic highlights

Medication or Drug ClassDosageDescriptionRationale
AntibioticsVaries with drugBroad-spectrum antibiotic coverageMay be prescribed when the obstruction is caused by an infectious process

Other Drugs: Analgesics

Independent

Focus on increasing the patient’s comfort and monitoring for complications. Elevate the head of the bed to assist with patient ventilation. Position the patient in the Fowler or semi-Fowler position to ease respiratory discomfort from a distended abdomen. Reposition the patient frequently.

Instruct the patient about the need to take nothing by mouth. Frequent mouth care and lubrication of the mucous membranes can assist with patient comfort. Patient teaching should include the indications and function of the NG tube. Discuss care planning with the patient and the family.

Teach the causes, types, signs, and symptoms of intestinal obstruction. Explain the diagnostic tests and treatments, preparing the patient for the possibility of surgery. Explain surgical and postoperative procedures. Note the patient’s and significant others’ responses to emergency surgery if needed and provide additional support if the family or patient copes ineffectively.

Evidence-Based Practice and Health Policy

Malik, A.M., Shah, M., Pathan, R., & Sufi, K. (2010). Pattern of acute intestinal obstruction: Is there a change in the underlying etiology? Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology, 16(4), 272–274.

  • A prospective study among 229 patients over age 10 who presented with acute intestinal obstruction revealed an overall mortality rate of 3.49% and complete recovery in 87.3% of patients. Mortality was highest among patients with a symptom duration of 1 week or more (p < 0.001).
  • In this sample, 87% of patients presented with abdominal distention, 73% presented with vomiting, 88% presented with complete constipation, 67% were dehydrated, and 75% reported abdominal pain.
  • The small bowel was the site of 85% of the obstructions, with the other 15% occurring in the large bowel. Postoperative adhesions accounted for 41% of obstructions, followed by abdominal tuberculosis (25%) and obstructed/strangulated hernias (18%).

Documentation guidelines

  • Physical findings: Vital signs, abdominal assessments, pulmonary assessment, fluid volume status
  • Response to pain medications, antibiotics, NG intubation, and suctioning
  • Presence of complications (preoperative): Peritonitis, sepsis, respiratory insufficiency, hypovolemia, shock
  • Presence of complications (postoperative): Poor wound healing, hemorrhage, or infection

Discharge and home healthcare guidelines

Teach postoperative care to patients who have had surgery. Teach the patient how to plan a paced progression of activities. Teach the patient the dosages, routes, and side effects for all medications. Review drug and food interactions with the patient. Instruct the patient to report bowel elimination problems to the physician. Emphasize that in the case of recurrent abdominal pain, fever, or vomiting, the patient should go to the emergency department for evaluation.

intestinal

pertaining to the intestine.

intestinal accident
sudden change in normal intestinal structure or disposition, e.g. intestinal volvulus.
intestinal adenomatosis
see porcine intestinal adenomatosis.
intestinal adhesions
relics of inflammatory incidents binding loops of intestine together or to peritoneum; have the effect of obstruction or luminal constriction.
intestinal aganglionosis
see colonic aganglionosis.
intestinal amphistomiasis
intestinal arterial thromboembolism
see verminous mesenteric arteritis.
intestinal atony
occurs reflexly as a result of peritonitis, of severe inflammation or distention in other parts of the alimentary tract and abdominal viscera, or directly as a result of severe inflammation, as distinct from the early excitation or movement that occurs with mild or early inflammation. See also paralytic ileus.
intestinal clostridiosis
a rare disease of the horse manifested by an acute, highly fatal diarrhea associated with the presence in the gut of large numbers of Clostridium perfringens type A.
intestinal compression
by a tissue mass, e.g. tumor, organ enlargement, causing partial or complete obstruction.
intestinal constriction
by adhesion, local blood clot causing partial or complete obstruction.
intestinal crypts
simple, branched, tubular invaginations of mucosa at the base of the villi.
intestinal dilatation
the causes of the dilatation are fluid, feces or flatus (gas). All cause pain of varying degree, and initially an increase in motility, followed by atony. In distention of long duration, e.g. with feces, the distended bowels are easily palpable and are usually the cause of some abdominal distention. In acute dilatation the distention and palpability of the loops of intestine are less obvious and later in their appearance than other signs.
intestinal displacement
causing partial or complete obstruction, e.g. displacement of the colon in horses.
intestinal diverticulum
may cause intestinal compression and obstruction, e.g. Meckel's diverticulum.
intestinal fibrinous casts
gelatinous, sausage-shaped masses, like casts of the intestinal lumen, resulting from severe inflammation and protein loss from the bowel wall.
intestinal fluids
fluids in the lumen of the intestine; the balance between intake and absorption of these fluids determines the form of the feces; disruption can cause diarrhea or constipation.
intestinal foreign body
has most importance as a cause of intestinal obstruction. It may also cause laceration and intestinal hemorrhage or penetration of the intestinal wall and the development of peritonitis.
intestinal granuloma
resulting from chronic local inflammation; cause constriction of the intestinal lumen.
intestinal hemorrhage
into the small intestine causes the appearance of red-black feces (melena); from the large intestine the appearance is typical of whole blood, which may be mixed homogeneously with feces or be scattered through them as clots.
intestinal hemorrhage syndrome
proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy.
intestinal hypermotility
causes abdominal pain, increased gut sounds, diarrhea and decreased opportunity for the absorption of nutrients. It occurs as a result of irritation to the intestinal lining, as in enteritis, to stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system by the use of parasympathomimetic drugs, or to changes in the composition of the gut contents such as occurs when there is a malabsorption problem.
intestinal hypersecretion
occurs as a result of distention and as a major part of the response to enterotoxic Escherichia coli toxin. The effect is to increase the fluidity of the gut contents; diarrhea results.
intestinal hypomotility
see atonia.
intestinal idiopathic muscular hypertrophy
ileal muscular hypertrophy.
intestinal ileocecal valve impaction
see intestinal obstruction colic.
intestinal impaction
see impaction colic.
intestinal incarceration
passage of a loop of intestine through a small orifice, e.g. inguinal canal, with resulting swelling, obstruction and occlusion of blood supply.
intestinal infarction
may be nonstrangulating, presenting a clinical picture of subacute but still fatal colic, or strangulating, e.g. when torsion precedes the development of the infarct, a much more acute and potentially fatal situation; see thromboembolic colic, intestinal infarction.
intestinal inflammation
intestinal intramural hematoma
causes a swelling in the bowel wall and partial obstruction of the lumen.
intestinal linear foreign body
see linear foreign body.
intestinal lipofuscinosis
brown discoloration of the intestinal muscularis, especially the terminal small intestine.
intestinal obstruction
any hindrance to the passage of the intestinal contents. Causes may be acute, such as those caused by foreign body, phytobezoar, intussusception, volvulus and strangulation. There is sudden onset of abdominal pain, cessation of feces evacuation, vomiting in dogs and cats, gastric distention in horses, rumen distention in ruminants, loops of intestine distended with fluid and gas palpable per rectum or visible radiographically, shock and dehydration. Obstruction may also be chronic and manifested by intermittent vomiting and abdominal pain, chronic intestinal distention, loud intestinal sounds, and palpable distended loops of intestine. See also intestinal obstruction colic.
intestinal parasitism
infestation of the intestinal lumen and wall by nematodes, cestodes and immature trematodes.
intestinal polyp
see polyp; may cause intermittent bowel obstruction or erratic passage of feces.
porcine intestinal hemorrhagic syndrome
see proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy.
intestinal portals
openings to the closed foregut and hindgut of the embryo.
intestinal pseudo-obstruction
the patient presents a clinical picture of intestinal obstruction with no surgically correctable lesion, e.g. paralytic ileus.
intestinal reflux
is part of the reaction to increased gut motility resulting in gastric dilatation and the vomiting of intestinal contents, even feces.
intestinal rupture
can occur as a result of extreme distention. More commonly it follows compromise to a section of gut, e.g. strangulation, in which a necrotic section of gut wall collapses. The effects of perforation of the gut wall through a deep ulcer are similar but not so sudden. The result of a rupture is sudden death due to shock and endotoxemia. With a slower leak the result is an initial stage of acute peritonitis accompanied by fever and abdominal pain.
intestinal sclerosis
mild to obvious bowel dilation with mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate in the smooth muscle fibers plus interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of smooth muscle cells.
intestinal secretory-absorptive imbalance
includes excessive absorptive function, e.g. thrifty bowel syndrome, or over-secretion, the classical malabsorption syndrome, e.g. in enteric colibacillosis.
intestinal segmental ischemic necrosis of mares
occurs spontaneously in the small colon of pregnant or postpartum mares; intestinal rupture and death follow quickly.
intestinal smooth muscle intrinsic disease
see intestinal sclerosis (above).
intestinal spasm
intestinal stenosis
constriction of the bowel lumen, as a result of incomplete aplasia, cicatricial contraction after injury or infection, leads to a syndrome of chronic or intermittent subacute abdominal pain.
intestinal strangulation
occurs in an incarcerated hernia, umbilical, inguinal, mesenteric tear, uterine ligament, or a volvulus. There may be a double problem of acute intestinal obstruction plus an intestinal infarction characterized by profound shock and toxemia, paralytic ileus and a blood-stained paracentesis specimen. Less severe but still lethal strangulations occur as a result of tightening of a lipoma pedicle, displacement of dorsal colon in the horse over the gastrosplenic ligament.
intestinal torsion
is a common cause of acute intestinal obstruction. There is an obstruction to the movements of contents and compromise to the circulation of the twisted segment.
intestinal tract
the small and large intestines in continuity. The long, coiled tube of the intestine is the part of the digestive system where most of the digestion of food takes place. The small intestine has three parts: the duodenum, jejunum and ileum; the large intestine, the cecum, colon and rectum.
intestinal tympany
is part of most cases of intestinal obstruction. Primary cases of intestinal tympany are rare and confined in their occurrence to the horse. See also flatulent colic.

Patient discussion about intestinal obstruction

Q. I recently had my surgery for bowel obstruction? I recently had my surgery for bowel obstruction? None of the diet was restricted for me by doctor but should I go for any special diet.

A. I had surgery in 08/08 during having a c-section and hernia repair, and I'm having diarrhea all the time. I don't know what to eat nor what medicines to take. Only Immodium AD helps temporary. If I have an appointment, I don't eat breakfast or lunch. I come home and eat dinner. About 30 minutes after eating, I'm in the bathroom. Can someone help me please? I have to return back to work next month, and I don't want to be in the bathroom more than I am at my desk.

More discussions about intestinal obstruction
References in periodicals archive ?
To the best of our knowledge, multiorgan thromboses, as a presentation of HES especially associated with intestinal obstruction, is rare and have only been reported by Kobayashi et al.
Rigler's Triad Partial or complete intestinal obstructions Pneumobilia or contrast in the biliary tree Visualization of ectopic gallstone in the bowel Change in position of previously observed stone * In 1978 Blathazar and Schecter described a fifth sign: Two air fluid levels in the right upper quadrant on an abdominal X-ray due to air in the gallbladder.
Intestinal obstruction is an important feature in the natural history of Crohn disease.
Very rarely, stomach distention occurs as the result of some other type of intestinal obstruction.
Contrast radiography was performed to rule out intestinal obstruction as a cause of postoperative regurgitation and absence of feces.
4) Common clinical features are: abdominal pain/mass, intestinal obstruction, weight loss, poor appetite or vomiting.
At today's process Bakyt Sydykov's attorneys gave the court a medical report of the National Surgery Center, which tells that defendant Sydykov was brought to a hospital with acute intestinal obstruction.
Most of the literature reports that the most common form of presentation is an acute intestinal obstruction which is also the clinical presentation of our patient.
3 percent risk of death, a five percent risk of intestinal obstruction and eight percent risk of an ulcer.
Early diagnosis and intervention are necessary in suspected cases of lithobezoars to avoid intestinal obstruction.
Such claims are unproven; thus, it is wise to limit Aloe Vera to external use, particularly if you are pregnant, a nursing mother, or have one of the following conditions: Gastritis, heartburn, kidney disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal obstruction, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, hemorrhoids or menstrual disorders.
Bezoars often lead to intestinal obstruction, as in our patient.

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