Arthritis was induced in all groups through injection, under anesthesia, of a 3% monosodium urate (MSU) solution into the intertarsal joint
. One hour after MSU injection, birds were orally gavage fed 1 mL of tap water (control), tramadol (30 mg/kg), or meloxicam (1 mg/kg).
Formalin fixed intertarsal joint
was decalcified in EDTA solution, trimmed, processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E).
Luxation of the intertarsal joint
in avian patients is often due to trauma or underlying developmental abnormalities such as avulsion of the attachment site for the flexor hallucis muscle, rupture or displacement of the tibial cartilage, displacement of the gastrocnemius tendon, or rupture of the collateral ligaments and joint retinaculum [1-3].
The left wing was dropped, and swelling of the left intertarsal joint
Abstract: The intertarsal joint
is a synovial roll-and-glide joint.
The anatomy of the intertarsal joint
and its function in locomotion was studied by Schaller et al.
On physical examination, the bird was quiet, was nonweight-bearing on the left leg, and had increased edema of the left foot to the level of the left intertarsal joint
. The distal phalanges of the left and right third and fourth digit had self-amputated.
The palpation of the intertarsal joints
further revealed medial displacement of both gastrocnemius tendons, a condition called "slipped tendon" and commonly associated with valgus deformation of the intertarsal joint
Skull and whole-body survey radiographs were performed under sedation with midazolam (0.5 mg/ kg IM) and butorphanol (0.5 mg/kg IM; Torbugesic, Fort Dodge Laboratories Inc, Madison, NJ, USA), and revealed bilateral intertarsal joint
osteoarthritis and an old healed left ulnar fracture.
problems are commonly diagnosed in cranes at this center, and most are traumatic in nature.
Postmortem examination revealed milky white kidneys, white crystalline deposits in the pericardial sack, and white crystals in one intertarsal joint
. Uric acid concentrations determined for the kidneys, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, and scrapings from the pericardial sack (20 mg) and intertarsal joint
(2 mg) were, respectively, 12,200, 200, 110, 20,700, and 43,000 mg/100 g tissue.
Arthritis was experimentally induced via intra-articular injection of microcrystalline sodium urate suspension (MSU) into 1 intertarsal joint
. Parrots were treated in a crossover design.