interstitial pneumonia

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gi·ant cell pneu·mo·ni·a

a rare complication of measles, with a postmortem finding of multinucleated giant cells lining alveoli.

interstitial pneumonia

a condition of diffuse, chronic inflammation of the lungs beyond the terminal bronchioles, characterized by fibrosis and collagen formation in the alveolar walls and by the presence of large mononuclear cells in the alveolar spaces. The symptoms are progressive dyspnea, clubbing of the fingers, cyanosis, and fever. The disease may result from a hypersensitive reaction to busulfan, chlorambucil, hexamethonium, or methotrexate. It may also be an autoimmune reaction, because it often accompanies celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic sclerosis. X-ray films of the lungs show patchy shadows and mottling, as in bronchopneumonia. Later stages of the disease reveal bronchiectasis, dilation of the bronchi, and shrinkage of the lungs. Treatment includes bed rest, oxygen therapy, and corticosteroids. Most patients die within 6 months to a few years, usually as a result of cardiac or respiratory failure. Also called diffuse fibrosing alveolitis, giant cell interstitial pneumonia, Hamman-Rich syndrome. Compare bronchopneumonia.

gi·ant cell pneu·mo·ni·a

(jī'ănt sel nū-mō'nē-ă)
A rare complication of measles, with a postmortem finding of multinucleated giant cells lining alveoli.
Synonym(s): interstitial pneumonia.


pertaining to or situated between parts or in the interspaces of a tissue.

atypical interstitial pneumonia
interstitial cell adenoma
see interstitial cell tumor (below).
interstitial cell-stimulating hormone
luteinizing hormone.
interstitial cell
the cells of the connective tissue of the ovary or the testis (Leydig's cells), which furnish the internal secretion of those structures.
interstitial cell tumor
a common testicular tumor in old dogs. Most are benign and not associated with any major clinical disturbances but there may be concurrent perianal gland neoplasms, infertility and rarely feminization or viciousness. Called also Leydig cell tumor or interstitial cell adenoma.
interstitial edema
edema of the interstitial interlobular tissue in the lung.
interstitial emphysema
pulmonary emphysema with air accumulated in the interlobular connective tissue; characteristic of emphysema in cattle.
interstitial fluid
the extracellular fluid bathing cells in most tissues, excluding the fluid within the lymph and blood vessels.
interstitial gland
of the ovary, consisting of polyhedral epithelioid cells in the stroma of the ovary and have characteristics of cells which produce steroids.
interstitial nephritis
interstitial fluid pressure
pressure exerted by the free interstitial fluid; if the pressure is negative this tends to suck fluid out of the vascular system and into the tissue space; if the pressure is greater than the intravascular pressure fluid tends to move out of the tissue space.
interstitial pneumonia
interstitial space
tissue space.
interstitial tissue
connective tissue between the cellular elements of a structure.


inflammation of the parenchyma of the lung. It is often accompanied by inflammation of the airways and sometimes of the adjoining pleura. Clinically it is manifested by an increase in the rate and depth of respiration at all degrees of severity up to dyspnea. There is also cough, and abnormality of the breath sounds on auscultation. In bacterial pneumonia there is usually a severe toxemia, in viral pneumonia it is usually minor. See also bronchopneumonia, pleuropneumonia.

Arabian foal pneumonia
an inexorably progressive pneumonia of certain Arabian foals born with primary severe combined immunodeficiency in which adenovirus plays a dominant role but is complicated by other microorganisms, particularly Pneumocystis carinii.
aspiration pneumonia
see aspiration pneumonia.
atypical pneumonia
histologically the pneumonia is atypical in that there are no signs of acute inflammation and it is characterized by an exudation of eosinophilic, protein-rich fluid in the alveoli which may become organized to form a hyaline membrane. In animals that survive for several days there is epithelialization of the alveolar walls. In humans there is a primary atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In animals the best known example is atypical interstitial pneumonia of cattle.
bronchointerstitial pneumonia
the lesions are centered on the bronchioles and a prominent feature is the accumulation of lymphocytes in interstitial tissue; typical of pneumonias caused by aerogenous virus infections, especially myxoviruses.
brooder pneumonia
see brooder pneumonia.
chronic undifferentiated pneumonia of sheep
see enzootic pneumonia.
corynebacterial pneumonia of foals
see corynebacterial pneumonia.
cuffing pneumonia
chronic undifferentiated pneumonia of sheep in which lymphofollicular sheaths around the bronchioles are a feature.
equine cryptococcal pneumonia
see epizootic lymphangitis.
desquamative pneumonia
a chronic pneumonia associated with Mycoplasma spp. and characterized by organization of the exudate within bronchioles and bronchi, and proliferation of the interstitial tissue and epithelium.
desquamative interstitial pneumonia
chronic pneumonia with desquamation of large alveolar cells and thickening of the walls of distal air passages; marked by dyspnea and nonproductive cough.
embolic pneumonia
results from hematogenous spread from an intravascular lesion elsewhere in the body. The best known example is caudal vena caval thrombosis.
endogenous-lipid pneumonia
focal alveolar accumulations of foamy, lipid-filled macrophages which may impede alveolar clearance. Usually an incidental postmortem finding in laboratory rodents, fur-bearing animals and uncommonly cats and dogs.
enzootic pneumonia
see enzootic pneumonia.
fibrinous pneumonia
an acute fulminating pneumonia, often lobar in distribution, characterized by a fibrinous exudate. Fibrinous describes the exudate, not the anatomical distribution so that the term fibrinous pneumonia should not be used interchangeably with lobar pneumonia.
foreign body pneumonia
see aspiration pneumonia.
gangrenous pneumonia
usually an accompaniment of aspiration pneumonia.
giant-cell pneumonia
a secondary lesion in dermatosis vegetans in pigs; lesions marked by the presence of a proliferative giant-cell type of diffuse interstitial pneumonia.
granulomatous pneumonia
has a slow course characterized by granulomatous, not exudative, lesions. Sporadic cases occur in immunodeficient animals. It is a characteristic of tuberculosis and systemic fungal infections, e.g. coccidioidomycosis.
hypostatic pneumonia
caused by pooling of blood and some decrease in viability of the dependent lung in an old, sick or debilitated animal that is in lateral recumbency for a long period. The infection is secondary to hypostasis.
inhalation pneumonia
see aspiration pneumonia.
interstitial pneumonia
pneumonia in which there is diffuse or patchy damage to alveolar septa widely distributed through the lungs. There is an early intra-alveolar exudative phase followed by significant proliferation and enlargement of the alveolar epithelial cells and a thickening of the interstitial tissue. Most interstitial pneumonias in animals are infectious including viral, bacterial, fungal and protozoal causes, but may be caused by chemical injury, acute pancreatitis or shock, as in acute respiratory distress syndrome.
lipid pneumonia
a specific type of aspiration pneumonia caused by the inhalation of oil droplets; most commonly associated with the forced administration of paraffin oil or cod-liver oil to cats. Called also medication pneumonia, lipoid pneumonia. See also aspiration pneumonia.
lobar pneumonia
a fulminating bronchopneumonia in which entire pulmonary lobes are diffusively inflamed and then consolidated. Pneumonic pasteurellosis in cattle is the type disease. The animal is critically ill with anoxia and toxemia.
lobular pneumonia
an oldfashioned term for bronchopneumonia.
lymphoid interstitial pneumonia
see maedi.
ovine progressive pneumonia
see maedi.
parasitic pneumonia
see lungworm disease.
stable pneumonia
see equine influenza.
suppurative pneumonia of foals
see corynebacterial pneumonia.
uremic pneumonia
occurs in dogs with terminal uremia; lesions characterized by absence of inflammatory cells.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cellular infiltrates consistent with cellular nonspecific interstitial pneumonia in a cryobiopsy.
Physiology Is a Stronger Predictor of Survival than Pathology in Fibrotic Interstitial Pneumonia.
The histological pattern in virus infection relies on morphological evidence of different degrees of lung injury affecting cellular pulmonary elements, resulting in interstitial pneumonia, currently associated with classical viral inclusion (CVI).
In one Japanese study of 57 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 47 with systemic sclerosis, 21 with polymyositis/derrnatomyositis, and 18 with systemic lupus erythematosus, KL-6 was found to be a useful marker for diagnosis and evaluation of interstitial pneumonia activity associated with collagen diseases.
Pneumonia and exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia were the main causes of respiratory failure.
In addition, the link with familial interstitial pneumonia "could provide insight into the particular clinical manifestations of this complex disease process and consequently lead to earlier detection, more predictable prognosis, and personalized therapeutic strategies," they said.
Organization of inflammatory exudates leads to intra-alveolar fibrosis, a process reversible by corticosteroids, in contrast to the usual interstitial pneumonia (1).
Lung biopsies have shown varying pathologic features: nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
Both IPF and CFA are associated with the histopathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP).
will launch NANOPIA(R) KL-6 Eisai, a new test kit for automated clinical chemistry analyser to determine KL-6, detecting marker of interstitial pneumonia.
Konoike, 68, a ruling Liberal Democratic Party lawmaker and close aide to Aso, cited ''health problems'' as the reason for tendering his resignation after being hospitalized Tuesday evening for interstitial pneumonia, Chief Cabinet Secretary Takeo Kawamura said.
At the time the family were told a blood clot in the lungs could have caused Mrs Davies' death, but pathologist Dr Daniel Moss gave the cause of death as interstitial pneumonia, complicated by the broken leg and recent medical intervention.

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