internal hemorrhoid


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.

hemorrhoid

 [hem´ŏ-roid]
an enlarged (varicose) vein in the mucous membrane inside or just outside the rectum; called also pile.

Internal hemorrhoids usually are first noticed when minor bleeding occurs with defecation. Pain occurs rarely, unless there is an associated disorder such as an anal fissure, thrombosis, or strangulation of the affected vein. External hemorrhoids produce varying degrees of pain, feelings of pressure, itching, irritation, and a palpable mass. Bleeding occurs only if the external hemorrhoid is injured or ulcerated and begins to break down.

Hemorrhoids are caused by increased pressure on the veins of the anus. Prolonged sitting, constipation, and hard, dry stools that are difficult to pass can lead to straining and sitting at stool for long periods of time, all of which add pressure on the anal veins. Failure to follow through on the urge to defecate can also lead to hemorrhoids. In women, probably the single most common cause is pregnancy.

External hemorrhoids can be treated by local applications of cold and an astringent cream, by sitz baths, and by avoidance of constipation. Internal hemorrhoids may require sclerosing or cryosurgery to obliterate the affected tissue. More advanced, chronic hemorrhoids usually must be removed surgically by ligation and excision (hemorrhoidectomy) or by barron ligation.
Types of hemorrhoids.
external hemorrhoid one distal to the pectinate line.
internal hemorrhoid one originating above the pectinate line and covered by mucous membrane.
prolapsed hemorrhoid an internal hemorrhoid that has descended below the pectinate line and protruded outside the anal sphincter.
strangulated hemorrhoid an internal hemorrhoid that has prolapsed sufficiently and for a long enough time for its blood supply to become occluded by the constricting action of the anal sphincter.

internal hemorrhoid

Hemorrhoid located proximal to the pectinate line, covered by mucous membrane and relatively insensitive to direct noxious stimuli.
See: hemorrhoid for illus.
See also: hemorrhoid
References in periodicals archive ?
Effectiveness of Retrograde Endoscopic Sclero Therapy (REST) for first and second degree internal hemorrhoids in children.
"If you have prolapsing or slightly bleeding internal hemorrhoids, you might just put up with them.
THE DEFENSE The internist claimed she had diagnosed prolapsing internal hemorrhoids, although the chart noted only internal hemorrhoids.
(Data shown as number of patients who had colonoscopic findings; some had multiple lesions and, thus, may be counted more than once.) Colonoscopic Cervical Thoracic Lumbosacral p-Value Lesion (n = 11) (n = 11) (n = 6) Diverticulae 4 4 2 0.99 Internal Hemorrhoids 7 3 3 0.25 Polyps 3 6 2 0.48 Colonic Cancer 0 0 0 -- Normal 1 1 0 0.99 Other * 1 2 2 0.49 Total 16 16 9 Note: Fisher exact test within finding across SCI lesion level.
A newer technique called stapled hemorrhoidopexy can treat protruding internal hemorrhoids with less pain than hemorrhoidectomy.
In some cases, internal hemorrhoids that have fallen outside of the anus (prolapsed), or that bleed too much, must be removed.
Internal hemorrhoids "don't hurt and they don't itch," says Smith.
Long term outcome of rubber band ligation for symptomatic primary and recurrent internal hemorrhoids. Dis Colon Rectum 2004; 47: 1364-70.
In the majority of centers this involves hospitalization, use of general anesthesia, loss of days of work and the complications associated with surgical procedures such as reactionary hemorrhages, perianal abscesses with subsequent fistulae, prolapse of internal hemorrhoids and anal incontinence.
Until recently, Ryan and 15 million other Americans who suffer from bleeding and discomfort caused by enlarged internal hemorrhoids, had only painful treatment options.
Of note, the patient also had nonbleeding internal hemorrhoids. An aspiration of the organisms was obtained and sent to the microbiology lab for further evaluation.
-- A procedure commonly used for treating internal hemorrhoids has now been successfully applied to correct a variety of rectal morphologic abnormalities that obstruct normal defecation, Dr.