We found no increase in the hair As concentration with increasing distance from the scalp, indicating no remaining external contamination after the alkaline washing procedure prior to analysis and that the hair As indeed reflects the internal dose
This shift from apical endpoints in intact animals after exposure to a certain external dose to mechanistically based descriptions of the toxic processes makes it evident that emphasis should be put on the estimation of the internal dose
in different tissues and cells.
With regard to the child participants, it was interesting to observe that age was inversely related to internal dose
as measured in urine or toenails.
The PBPK model was then used to integrate the information on various physiological and metabolic distributions to predict distributions for several internal dose
metrics in the population as a whole as well as some population segments.
1) A study by Tufts University researchers in the current issue of EHP suggests that BPA may act as a malignant mammary gland carcinogen in rats at internal doses
comparable to those seen in humans.
2] in diameter) occurring at internal doses
relevant to human exposure, suggesting that BPA may act as a complete carcinogen.
2010), and in such cases genetic variability can profoundly influence enzyme function with implications for internal dose
This issue may be a key determinant of cross-species extrapolation of BPA internal dose
, but it has yet to be addressed in BPA pharmacokinetic models (Edginton and Ritter 2009; Teeguarden et al.
Monitoring methods are needed that easily measure exposure, internal dose
, susceptibility, and biological outcome.
They also proposed four categories of biomarkers: internal dose
, biologically effective dose, early biologic response, and susceptibility.
The linkage between environmental exposure and dose, including internal dose
and dose to target tissue, is only scantily presented.
Behaviour of biological indicators of internal dose
and some neuro-endocrine tests in aluminium workers.