Nonstandard abbreviations: CVD, cardiovascular disease; VLDL, very-low-density lipoprotein; apoB, apolipoprotein B; IDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein
In addition, the Montreal Heart Study showed an independent contribution of increased VLDL remnants (VLDLRs) plus intermediate-density lipoproteins
(IDLs) to the progression of CAD and related clinical events (6).
In between, several bands can be detected: MID bands C, B, and A, which correspond mainly to intermediate-density lipoprotein
(IDL), as well as up to 7 LDL bands.
 Nonstandard abbreviations: TG, triglyceride; IDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein
; CHD, coronary heart disease; LPDS, lipoprotein-deficient serum; FPLC, fast protein liquid chromatography; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; and apo, apolipoprotein.
The main fractions--VLDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein
(IDL), LDL, and HDL--were separated from plasma one at a time by sequential ultracentrifugation.
In fact, it has been proposed that there is a channeling within the VLDL-intermediate-density lipoprotein-LDL delipidation cascade such that parallel processing pathways generate different intermediate-density lipoprotein
and LDL products from different TG-rich lipoprotein precursors (1).
Apo B100 (apoB) is the structural protein of atherogenic lipoproteins including VLDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein
, and LDL.
Apolipoprotein (apo) E, an arginine-rich glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 34 kDa, is localized on chylomicrons, VLDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein
, and HDL particles.
ApoB-48 is required for chylomicron production, and apoB-100 is an essential structural component of VLDL and its metabolic products, intermediate-density lipoprotein
(IDL) and LDL.
 Nonstandard abbreviations: LRC, Lipid Research Clinic; NHLBI, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; NCEP, National Cholesterol Education Program; IDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein
; CCSP, Cooperative Cholesterol Standardization Program; NRS/CHOL, National Reference System for Cholesterol; and CRMLN, Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network.
NMR spectra of each plasma specimen (0.4 mL) were acquired in duplicate by an automated 360 MHz lipoprotein analyzer, and the lipid methyl signal envelope was decomposed computationally to give the amplitudes of the contributing signals of 16 subclasses [1 for chylomicrons; 6 for VLDL; 1 for intermediate-density lipoprotein
(IDL); 3 for LDL; and 5 for HDL].
 Nonstandard abbreviations: ATP, Adult Treatment Panel; BQ, [beta]-quantification; IDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein
; and Lp(a), lipoprotein(a).