intermediate filaments


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in·ter·me·di·ate fil·a·ments

a class of tough protein filaments (including keratin filaments, neurofilaments, desmin, and vimentin) that measure 9-11 nm in thickness and make up part of the cytoskeleton of the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells; so named because they are intermediate in thickness between actin filaments and microtubules.
References in periodicals archive ?
Annotation of sheep keratin intermediate filament genes and their patterns of expression.
Intermediate filaments. In addition to the structures in the cytoskeleton formed by the M- and Z-line, the three-dimensional organization of thick and thin filaments is provided by an organized network of intermediate filaments which adhere to the sarcomere periphery.
Nestin is a class VI intermediate filament protein that, among other neural cells in the developing and adult central nervous system, was thought to be expressed exclusively in uncommitted neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and in endothelial cells [51-54], but it is also expressed in reactive astrocytes, especially after a brain injury [55].
They interact with plakoglobin, desmoplakin, and plakophilin that are involved in desmosome assembly and the anchoring of intermediate filaments of desmin [10].
[18] In most adult peripheral nerves, however, [alpha]-internexin is markedly downregulated during the embryonic development to hardly any detectable levels, and its disappearance from the PNS coincides with the appearance of another intermediate filament protein, peripherin.
Stretching induces stimuli in both the longitudinal and transverse directions in muscle (29), thus mobilizing the sarcomeres, Z lines, and other intermediate filaments. Here, the levels of desmin and vimentin were lower in the muscles of animals subjected to immobilization than in the muscles of the control-group animals (21- and 30-day-old rats), indicating a counterbalancing effect of disuse.
This long domain interacts with a high number of proteins among which they are the filamentous actin [24], intermediate filaments [25, 26] and microtubules [27, 28] and finally the muscular isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)[29-31] and PAR1-b [32].
The cytokeratin family consists of at least 20 types of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments found in epithelial cells.
In order to offer elements to support rational protocols to study the toxicity and pharmacology of organochalcogens, particularly tellurides, we have been investigating the in vitro and in vivo neurotoxicity of the simplest and the prototypal of the diaryl ditelluride molecules, that is, [(PhTe).sub.2] in rats, using the intermediate filaments as the targets of organotellurium toxicity (Figure 1).
We demonstrated by light and electron microscopy that both GSLs were associated intracellularly with vimentin intermediate filaments, but not with actin or tubulin.
To accomplish this the cells synthesize precursors and assemble them into two distinct structures, the cornified envelope and keratin intermediate filaments. The intermediate filaments are assembled from keratin monomers and the cornified envelope is assembled from a protein called involucrin and several other proteins.

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