A UK term for a focused interest and expertise in a medically qualified doctor in addition to his or her specialty, as would be an anaesthetist with a special interest in pulmonary hypertension. Special interests may be developed by the doctor even in absence of a recognised sub-specialty.
In the case of the settlement authority, for example, the Department of Justice could offer the violator a choice: pay the settlement directly to the Treasury, in which case the firm is liable for the full amount of the settlement, which is the threatened action, or pay a fraction of the settlement directly to a specific interest group or groups, which is the politician's demand.
In this paper, we explore an alternative source of the policy stability observed in democracies: special interest groups. As noted by Freedom House, a cornerstone of democracy is the granting of both political rights and civil liberties.
These demands call into question the very role that governments, as well as other engagement partners, play in engagement processes and open the door for an increased role for other engagement partners (e.g., interest groups).