Abnormal distribution of the nervus dorsalis scapulae, and of certain of the intercostal nerves
2 A variety of strategies including spinal anesthesia, intercostal nerve
block, systemic opioids, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and alpha-2 agonist are used to control pain.
Neurotization of brachial plexus avulsion with intercostal nerves
14,15] Flank bulge due to laxity of the anterolateral abdominal musculature may be caused by damage to intercostal nerves
A) Rib-associated intercostal nerves
are rerouted and connected to the paralysis-affected femoral cutaneous (into thigh) and ilioinguinal nerves, restoring some leg and sexual sensation.
Other sites of donor nerves include the medial and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, intercostal nerves
, and the saphenous nerve.
Patent ductus arteriosus - closure; Patent foramen ovale - closure ; Pectus excavatum and Pectus carinatum - Surgical Correction; Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for primary and secondary lung cancers; Photophoresis, extracorporeal - Therapy for Heart Transplant Rejection; Post-thoracotomy Pain - Intraoperative, Intercostal Nerves
, Cryoanalgesia; Pulmonary vein isolation for a trial fibrillation; Pulmonary valve repair and/or replacement;
Therefore, in order to decrease the post-thoracotomy pain, intraoperative protection of intercostal nerves
should be taken into consideration.
Mode of production of analgesia is by reverse diffusion of local anaesthetic from pleural space back into subpleural space, reaching and blocking intercostal nerves
, and to some extent sympathetic chain and splanchnic nerves depending on the dose and position of the patient.
As the pain after thoracotomy is 'neurogenic' due to damaged intercostal nerves
and central hyperexcitability, known to be poorly sensitive to opioids and reliance on these drugs has detrimental effects as respiratory depression, hypoxia and long term drug dependence.
In this case, Freeman connected intercostal nerves
(those leading from the spinal cord around each rib to the sternum) to sacral-nerve roots below the injury site in a 33-year-old prisoner who sustained a thoracic (T8-9) injury from police gunshot five months earlier.