However, often, to access an upper calyx during expiration, it is necessary to move more superiorly, making intercostal nerve
injury more likely.
Therefore, with due attention to diverse opinions on efficacy of intercostal muscle flap for intercostal nerve
preservation compared to intracostal suture only, the current study was designed to compare the intensity of post-operative pain in asymptomatic patients that underwent posterolateral thoracotomy with and without intercostal muscle flap.
Japan) also routed intercostal nerves
to paralyzed areas in eight patients who sustained paraplegia at least a year before surgery (Neurol Mediochir [Tokyo] 6, 1964).
Review of Literature: Although block of the intercostal nerve
is not new, interest in this technique was revived when Nunn and Salvin (1980) (10) re-examined the anatomy of the intercostal space in cadavers.
We conclude that using clonidine as an adjunct to bupivacaine for continuous paravertebral intercostal nerve
block improves pain relief after thoracotomy, but hypotension and sedation are adverse effects interfering with its clinical application.
Zhang commonly reroutes one of the intercostal nerves
that lead from the spinal cord around each rib to the sternum, If the intercostal nerve
is not long enough to reach the target nerve site below the injury level, a segment of the sural nerve (isolated from the calf) is attached to the intercostal nerve
As the pain after thoracotomy is 'neurogenic' due to damaged intercostal nerves
and central hyperexcitability, known to be poorly sensitive to opioids and reliance on these drugs has detrimental effects as respiratory depression, hypoxia and long term drug dependence.
Zhang rerouted an intercostal nerve
from one side of Huocheng's body to the lumbar nerve roots and, in turn, an intercostal nerve
from the opposite side of his body to the sacral nerve roots.
INTRODUCTION: Normally the undivided lateral cutaneous branch of second intercostal nerve
leaves the second intercostal space by piercing the lateral thoracic wall at midaxillary plane, passes along the base of axilla within the central group of axillary lymph nodes, reaches the upper and medial part of arm where it joins with medial cutaneous nerve of arm to form intercostobrachial nerve to supply the skin of upper and medial parts of arm.
block was given by the surgeon at the end of surgery for post operative analgesia and later on maintained with drugs like fentanyl, tramadol and paracetomol IV.
The sympathetic chain lies in the same fascial plane, just anterior to the intercostal nerve
and communicates with it via the rami communicants
Its normal innervation is the intercostal nerves
ranging from T1 to T4 or T5.