The mass loss observed in case of both intercalates is quite significant.
Thus, it is inferred from the results that intercalates resulted from clay treated with NaOH gained thermal stability.
Similarly, the mass losses in case of intercalates observed at 500 and 750 o C are also quit lower than the mass losses observed in case of original clay.
2 and 3 show the DTA curves of the clay-NaOH and clay-KOH intercalates preheated at 150 o C.
4 and 5 show the DTA curves of the clay-NaOH and clay-KOH intercalates preheated at 500 o C.
Water molecules accumulate around the Na and K in the intercalates and get physiosorbed.
Amongst the intercalates, the ones preheated at 750 o C giving pronounced endothermic peaks at low temperature range compared to the intercalates preheated at 150 and 500 o C, which give peaks with poor intensity.
Although these low molecular weight polar additives present in PP2 are able to intercalate into clay galleries, they are not compatible with PP (in the same way as PP-MA), and therefore clay particles do not distribute homogenously throughout the matrix.
It has been shown from XRD and TEM results that both additives (slip and antistatic agents), which are present in PP2 grade, intercalate into clay galleries, and so AA was then used to study the effect of its concentration on intercalation behavior of clay.
From this result, it is clear that functional (amide-type) slip additives intercalate into the clay galleries, resulting in higher gallery spacing, and the presence of the polar amide group of the additive is likely to be the driving force for the migration process that creates enhanced intercalation of the clay galleries.
This would suggest that not only slip agents but also antistatic agents intercalate into the clay galleries, resulting in a higher clay gallery space in PP2-2 composite.
The experimental results showed that polar additives, some of which are present in commercial PP grades, are able to intercalate into the clay galleries, resulting in a higher interlayer spacing and promoting enhancement of clay dispersion in the PP matrix.