integron


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integron

a GENETIC element that has the ability to acquire unrelated GENES, such as ANTIBIOTIC resistance genes, by site-specific integration events. Integrons have been found in PLASMIDS and TRANSPOSABLE GENETIC ELEMENTS and are probably important in the EVOLUTION of GENOMES.
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None of Class 1~3 integrases gene was detected in the studied isolates using the primers including the internal primers for Class 2 integron. The integrons variable region analysis identified the172 isolates and 8 kinds of sequence were found by PCR and sequencing them.
A particular concern is that these enzymes are located on integron structures that reside on mobile genetic elements such as plasmids or transposons, thus enabling widespread dissemination among the gram negative fraternity (3).
coli isolated from piglets showed the following percentages of any integron class during the different stages of production: farrowing pen stage 68.1%, weaning 60%, and growing/finishing 85.8% showing an increase along the production system (Table 2).
They also demonstrated that Class 1 integron gene and [tet.sup.R] genes (tetA and tetC) were disseminated in different aquatic environments in Jiangsu Province in China ("hang et al.
Integron cassette insertion: a recombination process involving a folded single strand substrate.
Table 1--Chi-square remits of association between presence of integron 1 on Salmonella and AMR (n=54) Fisher's Drug Chi Exact Odd Ratio 95% CI square p-value (OR) Amo/CIA 0.175 0.445 1.2667 0.42, 3.83 Ampicillin 0.4336 0.264 1.4662 0.47, 4.59 Cefoxitin 0.1645 0.457 0.787 0.25, 2.51 Ceftriaxone -- 0.227 0.451 0.11, 1.92 Chloramphenicol 0.9678 0.241 0.5727 0.19, 1.75 Gentamicin -- 0.0225 5.5641 1.24, 24.93 Kanamycin 0.0965 0.381 1.1958 0.39, 3.70 Sulfozoxazole 0.0012 1.0214 0.31, 3.31 Tetracycline 2.65 0.096 3.69571 0.72, 19.l0 Figure 1: Distribution of AMR in Salmonella isolates tested for presence of integron 1 Drugs percentage (%) Tetracycline 85 Ampicillin 65 Sulfizoxazole 65 Chloramphenicol 45 Kanamycin 45 Cefoxitin 35 Gentamicin 35 Ceftriaxone 15 Note: Table made from bar graph.
Characterization of integron mediated antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolated from diseased swine.
carrying an extended-spectrum p-lactamase gene and a class 1 integron. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy.
Tn6540 comprised a class 1 integron including [bla.sub.VIM-4] as the first gene cassette, followed by aac(6)-Il, dfrA1b, [DELTA]ant(3"), and smr2.
DNA sequencing analysis of the [bla.sub.OXA-56] genetic context showed that it was carried by a class 1 integron (named In163) as previously described by Carvalho et al.
Sul-1 type integron was noticed in 40.74% (11/27) of isolates while ISEcp1 was noticed in 11.11% isolates (3/27).
Integron diversity in heavy-metal-contaminated mine tailings and inferences about integron evolution.