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Related to integral calculus: differential calculus


 [kal´ku-lus] (pl. cal´culi) (L.)
an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the body, chiefly in hollow organs or their passages. Called also stone. See also kidney stone and gallstone. adj., adj cal´culous.
biliary calculus gallstone.
bladder calculus vesical calculus.
bronchial calculus broncholith.
calcium oxalate calculus oxalate calculus.
dental calculus a hard, stonelike concretion, varying in color from creamy yellow to black, that forms on the teeth or dental prostheses through calcification of dental plaque; it begins as a yellowish film formed of calcium phosphate and carbonate, food particles, and other organic matter that is deposited on the teeth by the saliva. It should be removed regularly by a dentist or dental hygienist; if neglected, it can cause bacteria to lodge between the gums and the teeth, causing gum infection, dental caries, loosening of the teeth, and other disorders. Called also tartar.
gastric calculus gastrolith.
intestinal calculus enterolith.
lung calculus a hard mass or concretion formed in the bronchi around a small center of inorganic material, or from calcified portions of lung tissue or adjacent lymph nodes. Called also pneumolith.
mammary calculus a concretion in one of the lactiferous ducts.
nasal calculus rhinolith.
oxalate calculus a hard urinary calculus of calcium oxalate; some are covered with minute sharp spines that may abrade the renal pelvic epithelium, and others are smooth. Called also calcium oxalate calculus.
phosphate calculus a urinary calculus composed of a phosphate along with calcium oxalate and ammonium urate; it may be hard, soft, or friable, and so large that it may fill the renal pelvis and calices.
prostatic calculus a concretion formed in the prostate, chiefly of calcium carbonate and phosphate. Called also prostatolith.
renal calculus kidney stone.
staghorn calculus a urinary calculus, usually a phosphate calculus, found in the renal pelvis and shaped like the antlers of a stag because it extends into multiple calices.
urate calculus uric acid calculus.
urethral calculus a urinary calculus in the urethra; symptoms vary according to the patient's sex and the site of lodgment.
uric acid calculus a hard, yellow or reddish-yellow urinary calculus formed from uric acid.
urinary calculus a calculus in any part of the urinary tract; it is vesical when lodged in the bladder and renal (see kidney stone) when in the renal pelvis. Common types named for their primary components are oxalate calculi, phosphate calculi, and uric acid calculi. Called also urolith.
uterine calculus any kind of concretion in the uterus, such as a calcified myoma. Called also hysterolith and uterolith.
vesical calculus a urinary calculus in the urinary bladder. Called also bladder calculus.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


, gen. and pl.


(kal'kyū-lŭs, -lī),
A concretion formed in any part of the body, most commonly in the passages of the biliary and urinary tracts; usually composed of salts of inorganic or organic acids, or of other material such as cholesterol.
Synonym(s): stone (1)
[L. a pebble]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


n. pl. calcu·li (-lī′) or calcu·luses
1. Medicine An abnormal concretion in the body, usually formed of mineral salts and found in the gallbladder, kidney, or urinary bladder, for example.
2. Dentistry See tartar.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.


Indurated, yellow-brown/black deposits on teeth formed by bacteria in dental plaques from mineralised calcium salts in saliva and subgingival transudates. 

A stone in the urinary tract.

An abnormal, often calcium-rich mass found in various tissues, seen by light microscopy.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.


Plural, calculi Dentistry Tartar Indurated, yellow–brown/black deposits on teeth formed by bacteria in dental plaques from mineralized calcium salts in saliva and subgingival transudates Kidneys A stone in the urinary tract. See Mulberry calculus, Staghorn calculus.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


, pl. calculi (kal'kyū-lŭs, -lī)
A concretion formed in any part of the body, most commonly in the passages of the biliary and urinary tracts; usually composed of salts of inorganic or organic acids, or of other material such as cholesterol.
See also: dental calculus
Synonym(s): stone (1) .
[L. a pebble]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012


A stone of any kind formed abnormally in the body, mainly in the urinary system and the gall bladder. Calculi form in fluids in which high concentrations of chemical substances are dissolved. Their formation is encouraged by infection.

calculus (dental)

Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005


Any type of hard concretion (stone) in the body, but usually found in the gallbladder, pancreas and kidneys. They are formed by the accumulation of excess mineral salts and other organic material such as blood or mucous. Calculi (pl.) can cause problems by lodging in and obstructing the proper flow of fluids, such as bile to the intestines or urine to the bladder.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


, pl. calculi (kal'kyū-lŭs, -lī)
1. Synonym(s): dental calculus.
2. Concretion formed in any part of the body, most commonly in passages of biliary and urinary tracts; usually composed of salts of inorganic or organic acids, or of other material such as cholesterol.
Synonym(s): stone (1) .
[L. a pebble]
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012

Patient discussion about calculus

Q. Why do i get kidney stones? I am 38 and have had three stones pass so far. Is it the coffee, the meat, the stress, or the damned DNA?! My uncle is in his 50s and has passed over 30 stones!

A. Kidney stones are very common and even without the genetic or familial background people tend to get them. Of course, the more family predisposition you have, the higher are your chances of developing them, which is probably why you did. Also, a diet rich with dairy and calcium can cause your body to store excess calcium, that tends to calcify and create stones. Not drinking enough fluid is also one of the reasons.

Q. how do i cure tonsil stones (tonsiloth)?

A. There are very little literature about this subject, but I heard about treatment in which the crypts (deep and narrow grooves on the tongue in which the stones form) are burned with laser.

As far as I know these stones don't cause damage by themselves so it's not such a common treatment.

You may read more here:

Q. Would kidney stones affect a PSA reading? Would drinking lots of grapefruit juice affect a PSA reading? My husband's PSA reading jumped from a 4.2 to a 17 in @ 2 years' time. How can that be? This man takes all sorts of supplements and really watches his diet. He also takes good care of his body, and does NOT look or act 68.

A. You should get your parathyroid gland checked out. Your calcium level might be causing the kidney stones.

More discussions about calculus
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References in periodicals archive ?
Based on the results of the analysis and findings, the researchers concluded that daily time-pressured quizzes have the strongest impact on students' summative assessment performance in Integral Calculus. Although, homework and portfolio are important classroom reinforcement activities in the learning of mathematical concepts, students need to perform well in the daily time-pressured quizzes to excel in the summative assessment.
This test was tried out to the students enrolled in the Integral Calculus in a class of summer 2012 to determine the reliability coefficient.
Dacorogna and Tanteri (both Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Switzerland) present a textbook for a second year course in differential and integral calculus for engineering students who have previously completed a basic course in analysis.
Students are assumed to be adept with differential and integral calculus, though only differential is really necessary because derivations involving integral calculus appear at the end of chapters.
One of the problems with using Simpson's rule as an introduction to integral calculus is that the proof of the remarkably simple formula depends on knowledge of integration of quadratic functions.
Pons presents students, academics, and mathematics professionals with an investigation of the advanced methods of integral calculus utilized in the solving of ordinary and partial differential equations, as well as special functions for differential equations that cannot be explicitly solved.
Students should have completed one semester or two quarters of differential and integral calculus; no matrix algebra is required.
A variety of reference information includes a metric conversion guide, thermodynamics, heat transfer equations, fluid dynamic equations, integral calculus, and more.
It draws on their presumed prior knowledge of regular integral calculus and ordinary differential equations.
He assumes a background in elementary differential and integral calculus and college physics.
Although the text is not a theoretical treatment, students should have background in differential and integral calculus in order to understand the equations.
Junghenn presents students, academics, and researchers with a comprehensive exploration of the foundations of both differential and integral calculus. The author has organized the thirteen chapters and three appendices that make up the main body of his text in three sections devoted to the functions of one variable, functions of several variables, and appendices devoted to set theory and linear algebra.

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