Early-phase insulin secretion in response to glucose was assessed using the insulinogenic index
([DELTA][insulin.sub.0.5h]/[DELTA][glucose.sub.0.5h]), calculated as the incremental insulin response (0-30 minutes) divided by the incremental glucose response (0-30 minutes) .
Moreover, the insulinogenic index
and comparable C-peptide index ([DELTA]I30/[DELTA]G30, [DELTA]C30/[DELTA]G30) were calculated as the ratio of the incremental change of insulin or C-peptide to glucose, respectively, from 0 to 30 min of the OGTT as previously reported .
[INS.sub.0]/[BG.sub.0], IGI (insulinogenic index
), IGI/IR, and ISSI2 (the OGTT insulin secretion sensitivity index-2) were also used to estimate [beta]-cell function [14, 16-22].
Furthermore, we evaluated the association of PFAS concentrations quantified at baseline with key baseline metabolic and glycemic measurements, such as homeostatic model assessments for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), [beta]-cell function (HOMA-[beta]), fasting proinsulin, corrected insulin response, insulinogenic index
, glycated hemoglobin ([HbA.sub.1c]), and adiponectin, as well as glucose and insulin levels following oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT).
The basal, 30 min, 120 min insulin and 30 min glucose was significantly higher in SD, but the insulinogenic index
was not different - 0.2623.09 (SD) versus 1.763.
Insulin resistance was determined by the Matsuda Index (32), [beta]-cell secretion by the insulinogenic index
, and [beta]-cell function by the oral disposition index (33).
After adjustment this relationship held independently of BMI, HOMA2-IR (a measure of insulin resistance) and insulinogenic index
He gave them olive oil diet for fifty days but not found any improvement of insulin content of the pancreas, glucose tolerance test and there was a paradoxical lowering of the insulinogenic index
In healthy volunteers, the insulinogenic index
(0.65 [+ or -] 0.29 to 1.23 [+ or -] 0.56, P = 0.02) and the ratio of proinsulin to insulin were significantly improved (3.4 [+ or -] 1.8 to 2.1 [+ or -] 0.6, P = 0.03).
In a univariate analysis, a number of baseline factors were associated with failure, including race (with blacks doing significantly worse than whites); the presence of depression; lower household income; lower insulinogenic index
, and lower [HbA.sub.1c] The baseline difference in [HbA.sub.1c] was statistically significant, but still apparently small, he said.
The improvement in glucose homeostasis is probably driven by glucose-dependent insulin secretion as the insulinogenic index
, a measure of beta-cell function, was increased," the investigators wrote, adding that the mechanism of increased insulin secretion is "probably a direct effect of TAK-875 on beta-cell FFARl, increasing the levels of intracellular secondary messengers that augment insulin secretion."
However, when compared with the oral medications group, the insulin group had a significantly better insulin area under the curve, HOMA-[beta] index, and insulinogenic index