insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

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Related to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: Type I diabetes mellitus

in·su·lin-de·pen·dent di·a·be·tes mel·li·tus (IDDM),

former designation for Type 1 diabetes (q.v.); term declared obsolete by the American Diabetes Association.

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

in·su·lin-de·pen·dent di·a·be·tes mel·li·tus

(in'sŭ-lin-dĕ-pen'dĕnt dī'ă-bē'tēz mel'i-tŭs)
Former designation for Type 1 diabetes (q.v.); term declared obsolete by the American Diabetes Association.


(di?a-bet'ez) [Gr. diabetes, (one) passing through]
A general term for diseases marked by excessive urination and elevated blood sugar, esp. diabetes mellitus (DM).

brittle diabetes

DM that is exceptionally difficult to control. The disease is marked by alternating episodes of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Frequent adjustments of dietary intake and insulin dosage are required.


Diabetes may be brittle when insulin is not well absorbed; insulin requirements vary rapidly; insulin is improperly prepared or administered; the Somogyi phenomenon is present; the patient has coexisting anorexia or bulimia; the patient's daily exercise routine, diet, or medication schedule varies; or physiological or psychological stress is persistent.

Synonym: brittle diabetes mellitus

brittle diabetes mellitus

Brittle diabetes.

bronze diabetes


chemical diabetes

1. Asymptomatic DM, a stage in which no obvious clinical signs and symptoms of the disease are present but blood glucose measurements are abnormal.
2. Type 2 DM occurring in an obese child or adolescent. The syndrome is sometimes referred to as “mature onset diabetes of youth” (MODY).

cystic-fibrosis-related diabetes

Abbreviation: CFRD
DM arising in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It is the most common complication of CF other than those conditions that affect the lungs. It is caused by destruction of islet cells (the cells in the pancreas that make insulin) as well as a decrease in sensitivity of the liver and muscles to the actions of insulin. The disease usually first becomes clinically obvious in young adults.

Patient Care

Although CFRD can be diagnosed with fasting glucose blood tests or hemoglobin A1c levels, many experts recommend using an oral glucose tolerance test. Fifteen to thirty percent of patients with CF are affected by their 20th birthday, and perhaps as many as half have the disease by age 30. CFRD is associated with more severe lung disease than is experienced by patients with CF and normal glucose tolerance. Oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin, and exercise are the primary methods of treatment. Caloric restriction, a cornerstone of treatment for other forms of diabetes, is relatively contraindicated because of the need for aggressive nutritional supplementation in CF patients.

double diabetes

A colloquial term for hybrid diabetes, also called type 3 diabetes or type 1 and a half diabetes.

endocrine diabetes

DM caused by diseases of the ovaries, pituitary, thyroid, or adrenal glands.

fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes

A rare form of DM caused by chronic tropical pancreatitis and destruction of insulin-producing islet cells.

gestational diabetes

Abbreviation: GDM
DM that begins during pregnancy owing to changes in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance.

GDM affects a large percentage of pregnant American women, ranging from about 1.5 to 14 %, depending on the ethnic group studied. Although gestational diabetes usually subsides after delivery, women with GDM have a 45% risk of recurrence with the next pregnancy and a significant risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.


Although many diabetic specialists recommend universal screening for GDM, it is agreed by all diabetologists that women at risk for GDM (women over age 25 who are overweight at the start of pregnancy; have a previous history of gestational diabetes; have had a previous infant weighing 9 lb or more at birth; have a history of a poor pregnancy outcome, glycosuria, or polycystic ovary syndrome; or who are from families or ethnic groups with a high incidence of type 2 DM) should undergo oral glucose tolerance testing as soon as possible to assess blood glucose levels while fasting and after meals. Testing should be repeated at 24 to 28 weeks' gestation if the first screening is negative.


A calorically restricted diet, regular exercise, and metformin or insulin are used to treat GDM.

Patient care

Blood glucose self-monitoring is essential to management, and patients should be taught to monitor glucose levels four times each day, obtaining a fasting level in the morning, followed by three postprandial levels (1 hr after the start of each meal). Blood glucose levels at 1 hr after beginning a meal are considered the best predictor for subsequent fetal macrosomia. Target blood glucose levels are 90 mg/dL or less (fasting) and 120 to 140 mg/dL postprandially. The patient and her partner should be instructed that food, stress, inactivity, and hormones elevate blood glucose levels and that exercise and insulin lower them. They will need to learn about both pharmacological (measuring and injecting insulin) and nonpharmacological (menu management and physical activity) interventions to maintain a normal glycemic state (euglycemia) throughout the pregnancy, while ensuring adequate caloric intake for fetal growth and preventing maternal ketosis. Women who have no medical or obstetrical contraindicting factors should be encouraged to participate in an approved exercise program, because physical activity increases insulin receptor sensitivity. Even performing 15 to 20 min of “armchair exercises” daily (while reading or watching television) can help the pregnant woman reduce hyperglycemia without increasing the risk of inducing uterine contractions. If euglycemia is not achieved by nutrition therapy and exercise within 10 days, insulin is started. Pregnant women require three to four times the amount of insulin needed by a nonpregnant woman. Human minimally antigenic insulin should be prescribed. Often one dose of long-acting insulin at bedtime is sufficient, with rapid-acting insulins, i.e., regular insulin, insulin aspart recombinant (Novolog), or insulin lispro recombinant (Humalog) used to aid optimal glycemic control. Insulin glargine (Lantus), once used for gestational diabetes, is no longer recommended for pregnant women. Because stress can significantly raise blood glucose levels, stress management is a vital part of therapy. The woman’s feelings about her pregnancy and diabetes as well as her support system should be carefully assessed. Coping strategies should be explored. The patient is taught about deep breathing and relaxation exercises and encouraged to engage in activities that she enjoys and finds relaxing. She and her partner should learn to recognize interaction tensions and ways to deal with these to limit stress in their environment.

Maternal complications associated with GDM include pregnancy-induced hypertension, eclampsia, and the need for cesarean section delivery.

hybrid diabetes

A form of DM that has characteristics of both types 1 and 2. The patient may have episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis but marked insulin resistance and an obese body type.

iatrogenic diabetes

DM due to administration of drugs such as corticosteroids or dextrose infusions.

idiopathic diabetes

Type 1b diabetes.

immune-mediated diabetes mellitus

Type 1 diabetes.

diabetes insipidus

Abbreviation: DI
Excessive urination caused either by inadequate amounts of circulating vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) in the body (hypothalamic DI) or by failure of the kidney to respond to antidiuretic hormone (nephrogenic DI). Urinary output is often massive, e.g., 5 to 15 L/day, which may result in dehydration in patients who cannot drink enough liquid to replace urinary losses, e.g., those with impaired consciousness. The urine is dilute (specific gravity is often below 1.005), and typically the patient's serum sodium level and osmolality rise as free water is eliminated as urine. If water deficits are not matched or the urinary losses are not prevented, death will result from dehydration.


DI usually results from hypothalamic injury (such as brain trauma or neurosurgery) or from the effects of certain drugs (such as lithium or demeclocycline) on the renal resorption of water. Other representative causes include sickle cell anemia (in which renal infarcts damage the kidney's ability to retain water), hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, inherited disorders of antidiuretic hormone production, and sarcoidosis.


The primary symptoms are urinary frequency, thirst, and dehydration.


When DI is a side effect of drug therapy, the offending drug is withheld. DI caused by failure of the posterior pituitary gland to secrete antidiuretic hormone is treated with synthetic vasopressin.

Patient care

Fluid balance is monitored. Fluid intake and output, urine specific gravity, and weight are assessed for evidence of dehydration and hypovolemic hypotension. Serum electrolyte and blood urea nitrogen levels are monitored.

The patient is instructed in nasal insufflation of vasopressin (desmopressin acetate, effective for 8 to 20 hr, depending on dosage), the oral tablet form being more useful for bedtime or administration of subcutaneous or intramuscular vasopressin (effective for 2 to 6 hr). The length of the therapy and the importance of taking medications as prescribed and not discontinuing them without consulting the prescriber are stressed. Hydrochlorothiazide can be prescribed for nephrogenic DI not caused by drug therapy; amiloride may be used in nephrogenic DI caused by lithium administration. Meticulous skin and oral care are provided; use of a soft toothbrush is recommended; and petroleum jelly is applied to the lips and an emollient lotion to the skin to reduce dryness and prevent skin breakdown. Adequate fluid intake should be maintained.

Both the patient and family are taught to identify signs of dehydration and to report signs of severe dehydration and impending hypovolemia. The patient is taught to measure intake and output, to monitor weight daily, and to use a hydrometer to measure urine specific gravity. Weight gain should be reported because this may signify that the medication dosage is too high. Recurrence of polyuria may indicate dosing that is too low. The patient should wear or carry a medical ID tag and have prescribed medications with him or her at all times. Both patient and family need to know that chronic DI will not shorten the lifespan, but lifelong medications may be required to control the signs, symptoms, and complications of the disease. Counseling may be helpful in dealing with this chronic illness.

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

Abbreviation: IDDM
Type 1 diabetes.

juvenile-onset diabetes

A dated term for type 1 diabetes.

latent diabetes

DM that manifests itself during times of stress such as pregnancy, infectious disease, weight gain, or trauma. Before the stress, no clinical or laboratory findings of diabetes are present. There is a very strong chance that affected people will eventually develop overt type 2 DM.

latent autoimmune diabetes in adults

Abbreviation: LADA
A form of type 1 diabetes usually diagnosed after 30 years of age, in which there are serum antibodies against insulin, pancreatic islet cells, or the protein products of those cells. Most patients affected by LADA eventually require insulin therapy, like patients with type 1 DM.

maternally inherited diabetes and deafness

See: maternally inherited diabetes and deafness

mature-onset diabetes of youth

Abbreviation: MODY
Type 2 DM that presents during childhood or adolescence, typically as an autosomal dominant trait in which there is diminished but not absent insulin production by the pancreas. Children with this form of DM are not prone to diabetic ketoacidosis.
Enlarge picture
WELL-CONTROLLED DIABETES MELLITUS: Daily blood sugar abstracted from the records of a patient whose DM is well controlled (hemoglobin A1c=6.4). The average capillary blood glucose level is 104 mg/dL, and the standard deviation is 19. Sixty-five percent of the readings are between 90 and 140 mg/dL; the lowest blood sugar is 67 mg/dL (on April 15) and the highest is about 190 (on March 21).

diabetes mellitus

Abbreviation: DM
A chronic metabolic disorder marked by hyperglycemia. DM results either from failure of the pancreas to produce insulin (type 1 DM) or from insulin resistance, with inadequate insulin secretion to sustain normal metabolism (type 2 DM). Either type of DM may damage blood vessels, nerves, kidneys, the retina, and the developing fetus and the placenta during pregnancy. Type 1 or insulin-dependent DM has a prevalence of just 0.3 to 0.4%. Type 2 DM (formerly called adult-onset DM) has a prevalence in the general population of 6.6%. In some populations (such as older persons, Native Americans, African Americans, Pacific Islanders, Mexican Americans), it is present in nearly 20% of adults. Type 2 DM primarily affects obese middle-aged people with sedentary lifestyles, whereas type 1 DM usually occurs in children, most of whom are active and thin, although extremely obese children are now being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes as well. See: table; dawn phenomenon; insulin; insulin pump; insulin resistance; diabetic polyneuropathy; Somogyi phenomenon

Type 1 DM usually presents as an acute illness with dehydration and often diabetic ketoacidosis. Type 2 DM is often asymptomatic in its early years. The American Diabetes Association (1-800-DIABETES) estimates that more than 5 million Americans have type 2 DM without knowing it.


Type 1 DM is caused by autoimmune destruction of the insulin-secreting beta cells of the pancreas. The loss of these cells results in nearly complete insulin deficiency; without exogenous insulin, type 1 DM is rapidly fatal. Type 2 DM results partly from a decreased sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin-mediated glucose uptake and partly from a relative decrease in pancreatic insulin secretion.


Classic symptoms of DM are polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss. In addition, patients with hyperglycemia often have blurred vision, increased food consumption (polyphagia), and generalized weakness. When a patient with type 1 DM loses metabolic control (such as during infections or periods of noncompliance with therapy), symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis occur. These may include nausea, vomiting, dizziness on arising, intoxication, delirium, coma, or death. Chronic complications of hyperglycemia include retinopathy and blindness, peripheral and autonomic neuropathies, glomerulosclerosis of the kidneys (with proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, or end-stage renal failure), coronary and peripheral vascular disease, and reduced resistance to infections. Patients with DM often also sustain infected ulcerations of the feet, which may result in osteomyelitis and the need for amputation.


Several tests are helpful in identifying DM. These include tests of fasting plasma glucose levels, casual (randomly assessed) glucose levels, or glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Diabetes is currently established if patients have classic diabetic symptoms and if on two occasions fasting glucose levels exceed 126 mg/dL (> 7 mmol/L), random glucose levels exceed 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L), or a 2-hr oral glucose tolerance test is 200 mg/dL or more. A hemoglobin A1c test that is more than two standard deviations above normal (6.5% or greater) is also diagnostic of the disease.


DM types 1 and 2 are both treated with specialized diets, regular exercise, intensive foot and eye care, and medications.

Patients with type 1 DM, unless they have had a pancreatic transplant, require insulin to live; intensive therapy with insulin to limit hyperglycemia (“tight control”) is more effective than conventional therapy in preventing the progression of serious microvascular complications such as kidney and retinal diseases. Intensive therapy consists of three or more doses of insulin injected or administered by infusion pump daily, with frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose levels as well as frequent changes in therapy as a result of contacts with health care professionals. Some negative aspects of intensive therapy include a three times more frequent occurrence of severe hypoglycemia, weight gain, and an adverse effect on serum lipid levels, i.e., a rise in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides and a fall in HDL cholesterol. Participation in an intensive therapy program requires a motivated patient, but it can dramatically reduce eye, nerve, and renal complications compared to conventional therapy. See: insulin pump for illus.

Some patients with type 2 DM can control their disease with a calorically restricted diet (for instance 1600 to 1800 cal/day), regular aerobic exercise, and weight loss. Most patients, however, require the addition of some form of oral hypoglycemic drug or insulin. Oral agents to control DM include sulfonylurea drugs (such as glipizide), which increase pancreatic secretion of insulin; biguanides or thiazolidinediones (such as metformin or pioglitazone), which increase cellular sensitivity to insulin; or a-glucosidase inhibitors (such as acarbose), which decrease the absorption of carbohydrates from the gastrointestinal tract. Both types of diabetics also may be prescribed pramlintide (Symlin), a synthetic analog of human amylin, a hormone manufactured in the pancreatic beta cells. It enhances postprandial glucose control by slowing gastric emptying, decreasing postprandial glucagon concentrations, and regulating appetite and food intake; thus pramlintide is helpful for patients who do not achieve optimal glucose control with insulin and/or oral antidiabetic agents. When combinations of these agents fail to normalize blood glucose levels, insulin injections are added. Tight glucose control can reduce the patient’s risk of many of the complications of the disease. See: illustration

Prevention of Complications

Patients with DM should avoid tobacco, actively manage their serum lipid levels, and keep hypertension under optimal control. Failure to do so may result in a risk of atherosclerosis much higher than that of the general public. Other elements in care include receiving regular vaccinations, e.g., to prevent influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia).


Diabetes is a chronic disease whose symptoms can be ameliorated and life prolonged by proper therapy. The isolation and eventual production of insulin in 1922 by Canadian physicians F. G. Banting and C. H. Best made it possible to allow people with the disease to lead normal lives.

Patient care

The diabetic patient should learn to recognize symptoms of low blood sugar (such as confusion, sweats, and palpitations) and high blood sugar (such as, polyuria and polydipsia). When either condition results in hospitalization, vital signs, weight, fluid intake, urine output, and caloric intake are accurately documented. Serum glucose and urine ketone levels are evaluated. Chronic management of DM is also based on periodic measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c). Elevated levels of HbA1c suggest poor long-term glucose control. The effects of diabetes on other body systems (such as cerebrovascular, coronary artery, and peripheral vascular) should be regularly assessed. Patients should be evaluated regularly for retinal disease and visual impairment and peripheral and autonomic nervous system abnormalities, e.g., loss of sensation in the feet. The patient is observed for signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, e.g., numbness or pain in the hands and feet, decreased vibratory sense, footdrop, and neurogenic bladder. The urine is checked for microalbumin or overt protein losses, an early indication of nephropathy. The combination of peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease results in changes in the skin and microvasculature that lead to ulcer formation on the feet and lower legs with poor healing. Approx. 45,000 lower-extremity diabetic amputations are performed in the U.S. each year. Many amputees have a second amputation within five years. Most of these amputations are preventable with regular foot care and examinations. Diabetic patients and their providers should look for changes in sensation to touch and vibration, the integrity of pulses, capillary refill, and the skin. All injuries, cuts, and blisters should be treated promptly. The patient should avoid constricting hose, slippers, shoes, and bed linens or walking barefoot. The patient with ulcerated or insensitive feet is referred to a podiatrist for continuing foot care and is warned that decreased sensation can mask injuries.

Home blood glucose self-monitoring is indispensable in helping patients to adjust daily insulin doses according to test results and to achieve optimal long-term control of diabetes. Insulin or other hypoglycemic agents are administered as prescribed, and their action and use explained to the patient. With help from a dietitian, a diet is planned based on the recommended amount of calories, protein, carbohydrates, and fats. The amount of carbohydrates consumed is a dietary key to managing glycemic control in diabetes. For most men, 60 to 75 carbohydrate g per meal are a reasonable intake; for most women, 45 to 60 g are appropriate. Saturated fats should be limited to less than 7% of total caloric intake, and trans-fatty acids (unsaturated fats with hydrogen added) minimized. A steady, consistent level of daily exercise is prescribed, and participation in a supervised exercise program is recommended.

Hypoglycemic reactions are promptly treated by giving carbohydrates (orange juice, hard candy, honey, or any sugary food); if necessary, subcutaneous or intramuscular glucagon or intravenous dextrose (if the patient is not conscious) is administered. Hyperglycemic crises are treated initially with prescribed intravenous fluids and insulin and later with potassium replacement based on laboratory values.

Regular ophthalmological examinations are recommended for early detection of diabetic retinopathy. The patient is educated about diabetes, its possible complications and their management, and the importance of adherence to the prescribed therapy. The patient is taught the importance of maintaining normal blood pressure levels (120/80 mm Hg or lower). Control of even mild-to-moderate hypertension results in fewer diabetic complications, esp. nephropathy, cerebrovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease. Limiting alcohol intake to approximately one drink daily and avoiding tobacco are also important for self-management. Emotional support and a realistic assessment of the patient's condition are offered; this assessment should stress that, with proper treatment, the patient can have a near-normal lifestyle and life expectancy. Long-term goals for a patient with diabetes should include achieving and maintaining optimal metabolic outcomes to prevent complications; modifying diet and lifestyle to prevent and treat obesity, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and nephropathy; improving physical activity; and allowing for the patient’s nutritional and psychosocial needs and preferences. Assistance is offered to help the patient develop positive coping strategies. It is estimated that 23 million Americans will be diabetic by the year 2030. The increasing prevalence of obesity coincides with the increasing incidence of diabetes; approx. 45% of those diagnosed receive optimal care according to established guidelines. According to the CDC, the NIH, and the ADA, about 40% of Americans between ages 40 and 74 have prediabetes, putting them at increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle changes with a focus on decreasing obesity can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes in 58% of this population. The patient and family should be referred to local and national support and information groups and may require psychological counseling.

Diabetic KetoacidosisHypoglycemia
OnsetGradualOften sudden
HistoryOften acute infection in a diabetic or insufficient insulin intakeRecent insulin injection, inadequate meal, or excessive exercise after insulin
Previous history of diabetes may be absent
MusculoskeletalMuscle wasting or weight lossWeakness
Muscle twitching
GastrointestinalAbdominal pains or cramps, sometimes acuteNausea and vomiting
Nausea and vomiting
Central nervous systemHeadacheConfusion, delirium, or seizures
Double or blurred vision
Orthostatic hypotension
SkinFlushed, dryDiaphoretic, pale
RespiratoryAir hungerVariable
Acetone odor of breathIncreased respiratory rate
Laboratory valuesElevated blood glucose (> 200 mg/dL)Subnormal blood glucose (0–50 mg/dL)
Glucose and ketones in blood and urineAbsence of glucose and ketones in urine unless bladder is full

non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

Abbreviation: NIDDM
Type 2 diabetes. See: type 1 diabetes for table

pancreatic diabetes

Diabetes associated with destruction of the exocrine and endocrine functions of the pancreas, such as occurs in chronic or recurrent pancreatitis.

phlorhizin diabetes

Glycosuria caused by administration of phlorhizin.

renal diabetes

Renal glycosuria, marked by a low renal threshold for glucose. Glucose tolerance is normal and diabetic symptoms are lacking.

secondary diabetes mellitus

DM that results from damage to the pancreas (e.g., after frequent episodes of pancreatitis) or from drugs such as corticosteroids (which increase resistance to the effects of insulin).

steroid diabetes

Hyperglycemia caused by the use of exogenously administered corticosteroids, e.g., prednisone, methylprednisolone, or dexamethasone.

strict control of diabetes

Regulation of blood glucose to normal or nearly normal levels, both before and after meals. Tight control of blood sugar has been shown to improve the survival of patients in intensive-care units and to prevent long-term complications of DM, e.g., blindness, nerve damage, and kidney failure.

Patients with meticulously controlled DM typically have a hemoglobin A1c level of 6.5 to 7.0 or lower, fasting blood sugars that are less than 110 mg/dL, and after-meal blood sugar readings that are 140 mg/dL or less.

Synonym: tight control of diabetes

tight control of diabetes

Strict control of diabetes.

true diabetes

Diabetes mellitus.

type 1 diabetes

DM that usually has its onset before the age of 25 years, in which the essential abnormality is related to absolute insulin deficiency. It was formerly known as juvenile diabetes.
See: table
Type 1Type 2
Age at onsetUsually under 30Usually over 40
Symptom onsetAbruptGradual
Body weightNormalObese—80%
HLA associationPositiveNegative
Family historyCommonNearly universal
Insulin in bloodLittle to noneSome usually present
Islet cell antibodiesPresent at onsetAbsent
SymptomsPolyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, ketoacidosisPolyuria, polydipsia, peripheral neuropathy
ControlInsulin, diet, and exerciseDiet, exercise, and often oral hypoglycemic drugs or insulin
Vascular and neural changesEventually developWill usually develop
Stability of conditionFluctuates, may be difficult to controlMay be difficult to control in poorly motivated patients

type 1a diabetes mellitus

The most common form of type 1 DM. It is caused by autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas and inadequate insulin production. In type 1a DM, antibodies against insulin, islet cells of the pancreas, or glutamic acid decarboxylase is often present in the blood. The patient is prone to develop diabetic ketoacidosis if he or she is not treated with insulin.

type 1b diabetes mellitus

A relatively less common form of type 1 DM (seen in only about 10% of type 1 diabetics) in which autoimmune antibodies against insulin, pancreatic beta cells, or their protein products are not found in the blood. Beta cells are nonetheless destroyed (by unknown means), and the patient develops hyperglycemia or ketoacidosis unless he or she receives insulin.
Synonym: idiopathic diabetes

type 2 diabetes

A type of DM that occurs predominantly in adults. The insulin produced is sufficient to prevent ketoacidosis but insufficient to meet the total needs of the body, and resistance to the effects of insulin on peripheral tissues is often present. This type of diabetes in nonobese patients can usually be controlled by diet and oral hypoglycemic agents (e.g., sulfonylurea drugs or metformin). Eventually, insulin therapy is often required. In some patients the condition can be controlled by careful diet and regular exercise. Synonym: non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus See: type 1 diabetes for table

unstable diabetes mellitus

Brittle diabetes.

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

; IDDM an outdated term for type 1 diabetes mellitus (see type 1 diabetes mellitus; Table 1)
Table 1: Presentations of diabetes mellitus
Presentation of DMCharacteristics
Type 1 DM (formerly termed IDDM)Tends to affect younger people; acute-onset disease with weight loss and marked dehydration; untreated leads to ketoacidosis, coma and death; treated by diet control and lifelong insulin
Type 2 DM (formerly termed NIDDM)Tends to affect older people (>35 years old); chronic-onset disease with gradual weight gain and symptom onset; untreated leads to PVD, MI, CVA, and possibly ketoacidosis, coma and death; treated by diet control ± oral hypoglycaemic agents, and possibly insulin therapy in the long term
MODYAffects young people, but shows the characteristics of type 2 DM
Gestational DMCharacteristics of type 2 DM, which resolve after parturition
Low-birth-weight DMAs type 2 DM, presenting in adulthood in patients who were of low birth weight and/or those who were undernourished as children (including anorexics)
Pre-diabetes (insulin resistance)Subjects, such as those with obesity, lichen planus, acromegaly, polycystic ovary syndrome, history of anorexia, may show a poor response to a glucose tolerance test, and tend to go on to develop type 1 or type 2 diabetes later in life

IDDM, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; NIDDM, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; MI, myocardial infarct; CVA, cerebrovascular accident.

in·su·lin-de·pen·dent di·a·be·tes mel·li·tus

(IDDM) (in'sŭ-lin-dĕ-pen'dĕnt dī'ă-bē'tēz mel'i-tŭs)
Former designation for Type 1 diabetes (q.v.); term declared obsolete by the American Diabetes Association.
References in periodicals archive ?
The cause of the decrease in the NMC rate in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is not known, but there is speculation that it may be attributable to the decrease in ATPase activity.
The prevalence of coeliac disease (identified by antibody screening) in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is 1-7.
Adherence among children and adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus over a four-year longitudinal follow-up: II.
Gasbarrini A, Ojetti V, Pitocco D, et al: Helicobacter pylori infection in patients affected by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Nutritional strategies for adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
A second-generation screen of the human genome for susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Although these categories cannot be directly translated into the preferred categories of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively, they allow some assessment of the contributions of the two major types of diabetes to ESRD.
Zbar was developed in response to a study on the effects of intensive insulin therapy among patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Oral contraceptives and renal and retinal complications in young women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
It is the company's hope and belief that this extensive research effort in the non human primate model will help demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of its unique therapeutic approach, thus paving the way for the conduction of human clinical studies for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is primarily due to autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic islet [beta]-cells; non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, the more prevalent form, results from a combination of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.
A landmark study, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, revealed a direct correlation between high blood sugar levels and the development of long-term complications in people with Type I or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

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