* Placental hormone experimental studies outside of human pregnancy suggested that hPL also increases peripheral IR and may be a potent insulin antagonist
Furthermore, to confirm the possibility that stevioside and rebaudioside A could act as agonists of the same receptor engaged by insulin, we used the insulin antagonist
The thyroid hormones are insulin antagonist
that also potentiates the action of insulin in directly TRH synthesis decreases in diabetes mellitus.
Although visfatin is an insulin mimetic hormone and decreases the blood glucose levels in isolated settings the high levels of resistin (an insulin antagonist
) oppose its function.
(9) T3 and T4 are insulin antagonist
that also potentiate the action of insulin indirectly.
Although there are many possibilities, some of which may include the followings: enhancement of glucose utilization, possession of insulin-like properties and therefore induce transport of glucose into the peripheral tissues, ability to repair the pancreas to be responsive to glucose concentration for insulin production, may be acted upon and transferred by enzymes to an intermediate which possesses a pharmacological property such as hypoglycaemic property, it may contain biomolecules that can modify or stimulate insulin receptors, may modify the structure of glucose transport protein (GLUT 4) and it may inhibit insulin antagonist
within the body
TNF-[alpha] has been reported to interfere with lipid metabolism and to be an insulin antagonist
. IL-6 and IL-1 have also been reported to antagonize insulin action.