(53) For the purposes of the FSIA, an "agency or instrumentality
" is any separate legal entity which can be properly viewed as either an organ of the foreign state ("organ status") or other such entity in which the foreign state owns a majority ownership interest ("majority ownership test").
The varied shape, scale, appearance, cost, and operating characteristics of transport devices does not diminish or privilege any particular instrumentality
. Their size and reach means that humble bicycles have not been geopolitical tools like railways, but there is no mistaking the political machinations behind bicycling.
Under the IRS proposal, a governmental retirement plan would be a plan that is established and maintained for its employees by the government, an agency of the government, or a governmental instrumentality
Authors of popular works like The Overachievers (Robbins, 2006) and The Price of Privilege (Levine, 2006) draw similar conclusions about the detrimental effects of instrumentality
beliefs, describing the joyless and ultimately self-injurious behavior of high-achieving adolescents who demonstrate few personal interests, and only value school for its role in the college admissions process.
Is science really about understanding the world, with instrumentality
being a matter of fortuitous spin-offs?
(59) This line of reasoning, however, has not generally been used in the context of a highly regulated interstate instrumentality
such as the telephone network at issue in Giordana.
What Vroom suggested is that the Expectancy (E), Instrumentality
(I) and Valance (V) can all take different values: from -1, through 0, to +1.
Republic of Poland, (3) the Second Circuit Court of Appeals considered whether the Ministry of the Treasury of Poland was an "agency or instrumentality
" of a foreign state such that the takings exception to the FSIA would apply and expose the Ministry to suit.
The Expectancy Theory suggests that a person's motivation is based on the product of his or her valence (the value of an individual goal), expectancy (probability of successfully accomplishing a task), and instrumentality
(probability that the successful accomplishment of the task will result in achieving a desired goal).
Students who understand the instrumentality
of a learning strategy to achieve their academic goals are more likely to use it.
These researchers developed the Sexual Attitudes Scale (SAS) which explores four factors of sexual attitudes such as permissiveness (e.g., how casual a person might be about sex), sexual practices (e.g., belief in sex education for young people), communion (e.g., what does sex communicate to the partner), and instrumentality
(e.g., the purpose of sex).
By his own testimony, Coffin was "the reputed President of the Underground Railroad." Late in life, he published his many diary entries relating to the two thousand or more fugitives who, according to the title page of Reminiscences, gained their freedom through his instrumentality