28 on perceived instrumentality and intrinsic valuing respectively.
Additionally, there was a subscale measuring perceived instrumentality (5 items) and two subscales measuring valuing: intrinsic valuing (3 items) and extrinsic valuing (3 items).
Although our measures of learning and performance goals are probably familiar, it is important for us to note the conceptual distinctions underlying the particular subscales we used to measure perceived instrumentality and valuing.
We recognize this is a restricted sampling of possible extrinsic sources of value; however, we believe that the perceived instrumentality of academic performance has its primary influence on the extrinsic-utility value of school work, not on the other types of extrinsic value.
Although the extrinsic valuing subscale and the perceived instrumentality subscale are conceptually related (as described in the introduction), we believe they tap somewhat different points in a contingent relationship.
As expected, learning goal and instrumentality scores were positively correlated with scores on intrinsic and extrinsic valuing, and with each other.
Intrinsic Extrinsic Subscale Goal Instrumentality Valuing Valuing Learning Goal -.
In the first regression analysis learning goals, performance goals, and perceived instrumentality were simultaneously entered as predictors of intrinsic valuing.
Table 3 Simultaneous Entry Regression Analyses of Valuing on Goals and Perceived Instrumentality
The second regression analysis simultaneously entered learning goals, performance goals, and perceived instrumentality as predictors of extrinsic valuing.
The results of both the correlation and regression analyses indicated that perceived instrumentality was significantly related to both intrinsic and extrinsic valuing, even when controlling for learning and performance goals.
This is most strikingly seen in the case of extrinsic valuing scores where perceived instrumentality scores accounted for over 32 percent of the variance in extrinsic valuing scores when controlling for variations in learning goal scores.