If the high dose of nanomaterials was increased too much, even particles with low toxicity induced persistent inflammation, fibrosis, and tumor in the lung following not only intratracheal instillation
but also inhalation.
Single-dose versus multiple instillations
of epirubicin as prophylaxis for recurrence after transurethral resection of pTa and pT 1 transitional-cell bladder tumours: a prospective, randomized controlled study.
Common surgical treatments include widening of the urethra ("dilation"); bladder distention ("hydrodistention"), in which the bladder is filled with water to a high pressure; and bladder instillation
, in which chemicals are put into the bladder (including silver nitrate, oxychlorosene [Chlorpactin WCS-90], and the organic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]).
The addition of a lavage device to the drainage system allows washout of the operation site or instillation
of therapeutic agents.
The use of isotonic (0.9%) sodium chloride / normal saline instillation
(NSI) prior to endotracheal suction in intubated patients has been widely practised for over two decades in intensive care units throughout the world (Celik and Kanan, 2006).
The purpose of this article is to analyze and synthesize the research on saline instillation
for suctioning in order to determine the best practice for critically ill patients.
As a preliminary study, we evaluated MMC systemic absorption in two patients with STCCB in which MMC instillation
was associated with microwave-induced local HT (homogeneous heating of bladder mucosa within a medium temperature of 42.5 [degrees]C-46.5 [degrees]C).
Keywords: Apoptosis; Viscum album L.; Intralesional instillation
; Exophytic growing tumours; Bronchial cancer
Based on the results of several randomized trials, it has become obvious that intravesical BCG instillation
with or without maintenance therapy is effective in treating intermediate- or high-risk NMIBC; it is superior to other intravesical agents to prevent tumour recurrence.
Results of 6 weekly intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillations
on the treatment of superficial bladder tumours.
of gentamicin sulfate: In vitro, rat, canine, and human studies.
Key Words: Bladder cancer, transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), intravesical instillation
, nursing care, symptom assessment.