In this study, the most commonly rearing methods and environmental conditions were used; however, Arhopalus syriacus' first instar
larvae low survival could be due to the diet moisture and environmental conditions (Keena 2017).
Based on repeated measures, diet consumption by 7th instar
was significantly influenced by the treatments applied, diet consumption was lowest in integration of B.
(second through fifth instar
) were exposed to parasitoids under 6 foraging scenarios: (1) control without parasitoids, (2) 1 D.
armigera 4th to 6th instar
caterpillars was better, when these caterpillars were allowed to consume only leaves in comparison to new leaves + old leaves + pods at the beginning development of the grain and old leaves + pods at the beginning development of the grain + pods with well-developed grain.
pulchrus development times and larval body-case measurements used to classify instars Instar
Head Suture width (mm) length (mm) Egg -- -- Instar
1 0.12-0.20 0.07-0.16 Instar
2 0.18-0.28 0.16-0.21 Instar
3 0.29-0.39 0.25-0.32 Instar
4 0.44-0.58 0.37-0.54 Instar
5 0.70-0.92 0.58-0.78 Pupae -- -- Total development -- -- Instar
Case Average time (days) length (mm) within instar
Egg -- 10 Instar
1 <0.92 13 Instar
2 0.93-3.3 15 Instar
3 3.73-6.49 19 Instar
4 06.53-12.23 21 Instar
5 >12.93 32 Pupae -- 22 Total development -- 132 Eggs and pupae dimensions were not measured.
The 2nd instar
had a distinguishing characteristic i.e.
The latter instars
illustrated by Janzen & Hallwachs (2016) from ACG and Constantino (1997) from western Colombia.
The adult sex ratio was (30 F : 70 M), (62.5 F : 37.5 M) and (60 F : 40 M) after using (TNTs), (Bt-TNTs) and (Bt), respectively, for the 2nd instar
compared to (40 F : 60 M) in case of control.
Determination of Attractiveness Index of First Instar
No individuals survived after 5th instar
on T4.The same non-significant number of individuals 8.50+-0.87and 7.5+-0.96 was recorded on T1 and T2, respectively.
avenae (Sa) in all larval instars
of the predator; R.
The duration and survival of the embryo and nymphal stages, the number and duration of instars
, the total life-cycle duration, and the number of prey consumed were assessed.